From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1815. 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1815th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 815th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th ...
The British halt their advance two days later when informed of the Treaty of Ghent. February 15 – War of 1812 – The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent. February 17 – War of 1812 ends. September 23 – The Great September Gale of 1815 is the first hurricane to strike New England in 180 years. December 25 – The Handel and ...
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Napoleon loses the Battle of Waterloo and is sent to Saint Helena.January 10 – John A. Macdonald, first Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1891)February 15 – Constantin von Tischendorf, German Biblical scholar (d. 1874)April 1 – Otto von Bismarck, German statesman (d. 1898)April 1 – Edward Clark, Governor of Texas (d. 1880)January 8 – Edward Pakenham, British general (killed in battle) (born 1778)January 16 – Emma, Lady Hamilton, English mistress of Horatio Nelson (born 1765)February 24 – Robert Fulton, American inventor (born 1765)February 26 – Prince Josias of Coburg, Austrian general (born 1737)
19esmi sekle. Yares 1801 - 1802 - 1803 - 1804 - 1805 - 1806 - 1807 - 1808 - 1809 - 1810 1811 - 1812 - 1813 - 1814 - 1815 - 1816 - 1817 - 1818 - 1819 - 1820 1821 ...
- Chronology of the eruption
- Disruption of global temperatures
- Effects of volcanism
- Impact of the eruption
The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora was the most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded human history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7. The eruption ejected 160–213 cubic kilometres of material into the atmosphere. It is the most recently known VEI-7 event and the most recent confirmed VEI-7 eruption. Mount Tambora is on the island of Sumbawa in present-day Indonesia, then part of the Dutch East Indies. Although its eruption reached a violent climax on 10 April 1815, increased...
Mount Tambora experienced several centuries of dormancy before 1815, caused by the gradual cooling of hydrous magma in its closed magma chamber. Inside the chamber at depths between 1.5 and 4.5 kilometres, the exsolution of a high-pressure fluid magma formed during cooling and crystallisation of the magma. An over-pressurization of the chamber of about 4,000–5,000 bar was generated, with the temperature ranging from 700–850 °C. In 1812, the volcano began to rumble and generated a dark ...
—Lt. Philips, ordered by Sir Stamford Raffles to go to Sumbawa.:248–249 All vegetation on the island was destroyed. Uprooted trees, mixed with pumice ash, washed into the sea and formed rafts up to 5 kilometres across. Between 1 and 3 October the British ships Fairlie and James Sibbald encountered extensive pumice rafts about 3,600 kilometres west of Tambora. Clouds of thick ash still covered the summit on 23 April. Explosions ceased on 15 July, although smoke emissions were observed as ...
During the northern hemisphere summer of 1816, global temperatures cooled by 0.53 °C. This very significant cooling directly or indirectly caused 90,000 deaths. The eruption of Mount Tambora was the most significant cause of this climate anomaly. While there were other eruptions in 1815, Tambora is classified as a VEI-7 eruption with a column 45 kilometres tall, eclipsing all others by at least one order of magnitude. The VEI is used to quantify the amount of ejected material, with a VEI-7 ...
Volcanism affects the atmosphere in two distinct ways: short-term cooling caused by reflected insolation and long-term warming from increased CO2 levels. Most of the water vapor and CO2 is collected in clouds within a few weeks to months because both are already present in large quantities, so the effects are limited. It has been suggested that a volcanic eruption in 1809 may also have contributed to a reduction in global temperatures.
By most calculations, the eruption of Tambora was at least a full order of magnitude as large as that of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. An estimated 1,220 metres of the top of the mountain collapsed to form a caldera, reducing the height of the summit by a third. Around 100 cubic kilometres of rock was blasted into the air.. Toxic gases also were pumped into the atmosphere, including sulfur that caused lung infections. Volcanic ash was over 100 centimetres deep within 75 kilometres of the eruption, whi
- Arte, Știință, Literatură și Filozofie
1. 2 ianuarie: Lord Byron se căsătorește cu Anna Isabella Milbanke la Seaham, Comitatul Durham, Anglia. 2. 3 ianuarie: Austria, Marea Britanie și Franța formează o alianță defensivă secretă împotriva Prusiei și Rusiei. 3. 8 ianuarie: Bătălia de la New Orleans. Confruntare între Statele Unite și Marea Britanie în Războiul din 1812.
1. 3 februarie: Prima fabrică comercială de brânză este fondată în Elveția. 2. 26 februarie: Napoleon Bonaparte evadează din insula Elba.
1. 16 martie: Olanda devine regat, iar Willem I devine primul rege al Țărilor de Jos. 2. 20 martie: Napoleon intră în Paris; începutul "celor 100 de zile".Cadril. Dans executat de patru perechi așezate în careu, introdus în Anglia.Se înființează biblioteca tipografului Josef Klapka, prima bibliotecă publică de împrumut din Ungaria.11 ianuarie: John A. MacDonald, primul prim-ministru al Canadei (d. 1891)10 februarie: Constantin Bosianu, jurist și om politic, prim-ministru al Principatelor Române (d. 1882)1 aprilie: Otto von Bismarck, prim-ministru al Prusiei (d. 1898)6 aprilie: Robert Volkmann, compozitor german (d. 1883)24 februarie: Robert Fulton, 49 ani, inginer și inventator american (n. 1765)26 februarie: Prințul Josias de Saxa-Coburg, 77 ani, nobil german, general în armata austriacă (n. 1737)4 martie: Frances Abington, 77 ani, actriță engleză (n. 1737)5 martie: Franz Mesmer, 80 ani, medic german, creatorul hipnotismului (n. 1734)
In the United States, the economy grew every year from 1812 to 1815, despite a large loss of business by East Coast shipping interests. Prices were 15% higher—inflated—in 1815 compared to 1812, an annual rate of 4.8%. The national economy grew 1812–1815 at 3.7% a year, after accounting for inflation.
- 18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815, (2 years and 8 months)
- Draw, Treaty of Ghent, Military stalemate, Defeat of Tecumseh's confederacy, For its aftermath, see Historiography of the War of 1812 and Results of the War of 1812
Monarch – George IIIRegent – George, Prince RegentPrime Minister – Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (Tory)Parliament – 5th2 January3 January – Austria, Britain and Bourbon-restored France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia.8 January – War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans – American forces under General Andrew Jacksondefeat the British in the last major battle of the war.16 January–15 February – Lieutenant-General Sir John Murray, 8th Baronet, MP, is court-martialed and admonished for his conduct before Tarragona in the Peninsular War; he will be the most senior of...Jane Austen's novel Emma(anonymous; 23 December, dated 1816).Lord Byron's poems with musical settings Hebrew Melodies, including "She Walks in Beauty"; sells over 10,000 copies in a few months.Thomas Love Peacock's first novel Headlong Hall(anonymous; dated 1816).Walter Scott's novel Guy Mannering(anonymous).24 January – Thomas Gee, Welsh publisher (died 1898)12 February – Edward Forbes, naturalist (died 1854)24 April – Anthony Trollope, English novelist (died 1882)11 May – Richard Ansdell, English painter and engraver (died 1885)8 January – Edward Pakenham, general (killed in battle) (born 1778)14 January – William Creech, Scottish publisher and Lord Provost of Edinburgh(born 1745)15 January – Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of Horatio Nelson(born 1765)24 January – Sir Charles Malet, 1st Baronet, British East India Company official (born 1752)