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      • Applied ethics is often referred to as a component study of the wider sub-discipline of ethics within the discipline of philosophy. This does not mean that only philosophers are applied ethicists, or that fruitful applied ethics is only done within academic philosophy departments.
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    Why do philosophers study Applied Ethics?

    When did the new Applied Ethics in philosophy begin?

    Which is an example of an applied ethics?

    What are the three areas of ethicist study?

    • Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics
    • Business Ethics
    • Bioethics
    • Moral Standing and Personhood
    • Professional Ethics
    • Social Ethics, Distributive Justice, and Environmental Ethics
    • Theory and Application
    • References and Further Reading

    One way of categorizing the field of ethics (as a study of morality) is by distinguishing between its three branches, one of them being applied ethics. By contrasting applied ethics with the other branches, one can get a better understanding what exactly applied ethics is about. The three branches are metaethics, normative ethics (sometimes referred to as ethical theory), and applied ethics. Metaethics deals with whether morality exists. Normative ethics, usually assuming an affirmative answe...

    Some people might think that business ethics is an oxymoron. How can business, with all of its shady dealings, be ethical? This is a view that can be taken even by well educated people. But in the end, such a position is incorrect. Ethics is a study of morality, and business practices are fundamental to human existence, dating back at least to agrarian society, if not even to pre-agrarian existence. Business ethics then is a study of the moral issues that arise when human beings exchange good...

    Bioethics is a very exciting field of study, filled with issues concerning the most basic concerns of human beings and their close relatives. In some sense, the term bioethics is a bit ridiculous, as almost anything of ethical concern is biological, and certainly anything that is sentient is of ethical concern. (Note that with silicon based sentient beings, what I say is controversial, and perhaps false.) Bioethics, then, should be understood as a study of morality as it concerns issues deali...

    Take two beings, a rock and a human being. What is it about each such that it's morally okay to destroy the rock in the process of procuring minerals but not okay to destroy a human being in the process of procuring an organ for transplantation? This question delves into the issue of moral standing. To give an answer to this question is to give a theory of moral standing/personhood. First, some technical things should be said. Any given entity/being has a moral status. Those beings that can't...

    Certain things like law, medicine, and engineering are considered to be professions. Other things like unskilled labor and art are not. There are various ways to try to understand what constitutes something as a profession. For the purposes of this article, there will be no discussion of necessary and jointly sufficient conditions proposed for something constituting a profession. With that said, some proposed general characteristics will be discussed. We will discuss these characteristics in...

    This section is an oddity, but due to space limitations, is the best way to structure an article like this. First of all, take something like “social ethics”. In some sense, all ethics is social, as it deals with human beings and other social creatures. Nevertheless, some people think that certain moral issues apply only to our private lives while we are behind closed doors. For example, is masturbation morally wrong? Or, is homosexual sex morally wrong? One way such questions are viewed is t...

    One might still worry about the status of applied ethics for the reason that it is not quite clear what the methodology/formula is for determining the permissibility of any given action/practice. Such a worry is justified, indeed. The reason for the justification of skepticism here is that there are multiple approaches to determining the permissibility of actions/practices.One such approach is very much top-down. The approach starts with a normative theory, where actions are determined by a s...

    1. Allhoff, Fritz, and Vaidya, Anand J. “Business in Ethical Focus”. (2008), Broadview. 2. Andrews, Kristei. “The First Step in Case for Great Ape Equality: The Argument for Other Minds.” (1996), Etica and Animali. 3. Beauchamp, Tom, and Bowie, Norman. “Ethical Theory and Business.” (1983), Prentice-Hall. 4. Boylan, Michael. “A Just Society.” (2004), Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 5. Boylan, Michael. “Morality and Global Justice: Justifications and Applications.” (2011), Westview. 6. Boyl...

  2. Applied Ethics | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com › applied-ethics
    • Definitional Problems
    • History
    • Models of Application, Reasoning, and Justification
    • Method and Content: Departures from Traditional Ethical Theory
    • Competing Theories and Problems of Specificity
    • Bibliography

    "Applied ethics" has proved difficult to define, but the following is a widely accepted account: Applied ethics is the application of general ethical theories to moral problems with the objective of solving the problems. However, this definition is so narrow that many will not recognize is as reflecting their understanding of either the appropriate method or content. "Applied ethics" is also used more broadly to refer to any use of philosophical methods critically to examine practical moral decisions and to treat moral problems, practices, and policies in the professions, technology, government, and the like. This broader usage permits a range of philosophical methods (including conceptual analysis, reflective equilibrium, phenomenology, etc.) and does not insist on problem solving as the objective. Biomedical ethics, political ethics, journalistic ethics, legal ethics, environmental ethics, and business ethics are fertile areas for such philosophical investigation. However, "applie...

    Philosophers from Socrates to the present have been attracted to topics in applied ethics such as civil disobedience, suicide, and free speech; and philosophers have written in detail about practical reasoning. Nonetheless, it is arguably the case that there never has been a genuine practical program of applied philosophy in the history of philosophy (the casuists possibly qualifying as an exception). Philosophers have traditionally tried to account for and justify morality, to clarify concepts, to examine how moral judgments and arguments are made, and to array basic principles—not to use either morality or theories to solve practical problems. This traditional set of commitments began to undergo modification about the time the Encyclopedia of Philosophy was first published in 1967. Many hypotheses can be invoked to explain why. The most plausible explanation is that law, ethics, and many of the professions—including medicine, business, engineering, and scientific research—were pro...

    When applied ethics began to receive acceptance in philosophy, it was widely presumed that the "applied" part involves the application of basic moral principles or theories to particular moral problems or cases. This vision suggests that ethical theory develops general principles, rules, and the like, whereas applied ethics treats particular contexts through less general, derived principles, rules, judgments, and the like. From this perspective applied ethics is old morality or old ethical theory applied to new areas. New, derived precepts emerge, but they receive their moral content from the old precepts. Applied work need not, then, generate novel ethical content. Applied ethics requires only a detailed knowledge of the areas to which the ethical theory is being applied (medicine, engineering, journalism, business, public policy, court cases, etc.). Many philosophers reject this account because it reduces applied ethics to a form of deductivism in which justified moral judgments m...

    In light of the differences in the models just explored and the enormously diverse literature in applied philosophy it is questionable whether applied ethics has a special philosophical method. Applied philosophers appear to do what philosophers have always done: They analyze concepts, examine the hidden presuppositions of moral opinions and theories, offer criticism and constructive accounts of the moral phenomena in question, and criticize strategies that are used to justify beliefs, policies, and actions. They seek a reasoned defense of a moral viewpoint, and they use proposed moral frameworks to distinguish justified moral claims from unjustified ones. They try to stimulate the moral imagination, promote analytical skills, and weed out prejudice, emotion, misappropriated data, false authority, and the like. Differences between ethical theory and applied ethics are as apparent over content as over method. Instead of analyzing general terms such as "good", "rationality", "ideals",...

    One reason theory and application are merged in the literature is that several different types of ethical theories have been employed in attempts to address practical problems. At least the following types of theories have been explicitly invoked: (1) utilitarianism, (2) Kantianism, (3) rights theory, (4) contract theory, (5) virtue theory, (6) communitarianism, (7) casuistry, and (8) pragmatism. Many proponents of these theories would agree that specific policy and practical guidelines cannot be squeezed from appeals to these philosophical ethical theories and that some additional content is always necessary. Ethical theories have rarely been able to raise or answer the social and policy questions commonplace in applied ethics. General theories are ill suited for this work, because they address philosophical problems and are not by their nature practical or policy oriented. The content of a philosophical theory, as traditionally understood, is not of the right sort. Philosophical t...

    Beauchamp, T. L. "On Eliminating the Distinction between Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory." The Monist 67 (1984): 514–31. Brock, D. W. "Truth or Consequences: The Role of Philosophers in Policy-Making." Ethics 97 (1987): 786–791. Caplan, A. L. "Ethical Engineers Need Not Apply: The State of Applied Ethics Today." Science, Technology, and Human Values 6 (Fall 1980): 24–32. DeGrazia, D. "Moving Forward in Bioethical Theory: Theories, Cases, and Specified Principlism." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (1992): 511–539. Feinberg, J. The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984–1987. Fullinwider, R. K. "Against Theory, or: Applied Philosophy—A Cautionary Tale." Metaphilosophy 20 (1989): 222–234. Gert, B. "Licensing Professions." Business and Professional Ethics Journal 1 (1982): 51–60. Gert, B. "Moral Theory and Applied Ethics." The Monist 67 (1984): 532–548. Jonsen, A., and S. Toulmin. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Be...

  3. Applied Ethics – 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology

    1000wordphilosophy.com › 2018/02/13 › applied-ethics

    Feb 13, 2018 · Author: Chelsea Haramia Category: Ethics Word Count: 855 1. What Applied Ethicists Do The modern-day, direct study of applied ethics arguably began with Judith Jarvis Thomson’s 1971 article “A Defense of Abortion.”1 Thomson argued that it is permissible to have an abortion even if the fetus is a person with a right to life.

  4. ᐅ Applied Ethics | Ethics Philosophy

    simplyphilosophy.org › study › applied-ethics

    There is no need for applied ethicists to answer questions found in other disciplines. It is true that any applied ethicist will need to take a position on all of the issues dealt with in both metaethics and normative ethics. In order to explain what our actions should be in particular situations, we must know what is right and wrong in general.

  5. List of ethicists - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_ethicists

    All are known for an ethical work or problem, but a few are primarily authors or satirists, or known as a mediator, politician, futurist or scientist, rather than as an ethicist or philosopher. Some controversial figures are included, some of whom you may see as bad examples.

    • Metaethics
    • Normative Ethics
    • Applied Ethics
    • References and Further Reading

    The term \\"meta\\" means after or beyond, and, consequently, the notion of metaethics involves a removed, or bird's eye view of the entire project of ethics. We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts. When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy. It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology. Two issues, though, are prominent: (1) metaphysical issues co...

    Normative ethics involves arriving at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. In a sense, it is a search for an ideal litmus test of proper behavior. The Golden Rule is a classic example of a normative principle: We should do to others what we would want others to do to us. Since I do not want my neighbor to steal my car, then it is wrong for me to steal her car. Since I would want people to feed me if I was starving, then I should help feed starving people. Using this same rea...

    Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics, and sexual ethics. Generally speaking, two features are necessary for an issue to be considered an \\"applied ethical issue.\\" First, the issue needs to be controversial in the sense that there ar...

    1. Anscombe,Elizabeth \\"Modern Moral Philosophy,\\" Philosophy, 1958, Vol. 33, reprinted in her Ethics, Religion and Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1981). 2. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, in Barnes, Jonathan, ed., The Complete Works of Aristotle (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984). 3. Ayer, A. J., Language, Truth and Logic (New York: Dover Publications, 1946). 4. Baier, Kurt, The Moral Point of View: A Rational Basis of Ethics (Cornell University Press, 1958). 5. Bentham, Jeremy...

  6. Lists of philosophers - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Lists_of_philosophers

    To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of their last name. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below.

  7. Kantian Ethics (Applications) | Introduction to Philosophy

    courses.lumenlearning.com › sanjacinto-philosophy

    Feminist philosopher Catharine MacKinnon has argued that many contemporary practices would be deemed immoral by Kant’s standards because they dehumanise women. Sexual harassment, prostitution and pornography, she argues, objectify women and do not meet Kant’s standard of human autonomy.

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