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  1. This makes it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers. Major Austronesian languages include Indonesian, around 250–270 million speakers, Malay, Javanese, and Tagalog ( Filipino ). According to some estimates, the family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.

  2. Austronesian languages From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Language families. Places where Austronesian languages are spoken are colored pink. The Austronesian languages are a language family. They were originally spoken in Southeast Asia and on islands in the Pacific Ocean . List of Austronesian languages Anus Indonesian Fijian

    • Overview
    • Classification
    • Criticism

    Sino-Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian is a proposed language family suggested by Laurent Sagart in 1990. Using reconstructions of Old Chinese, Sagart argued that the Austronesian languages are related to the Sinitic languages phonologically, lexically and morphologically. Sagart later accepted the Sino-Tibetan languages as a valid group an...

    Stanley Starosta expands Sagart's Sino-Austronesian tree with a "Yangzian" branch, consisting of Austroasiatic and Hmong–Mien, to form an East Asian superphylum.

    Weera Ostapirat supports the link between Austronesian and Kra–Dai, though as sister groups. However, he rejects a link to Sino-Tibetan, noting that the apparent cognates are rarely found in all branches of Kra–Dai, and almost none are in core vocabulary. Austronesian linguists Paul Jen-kuei Li and Robert Blust have criticized Sagart's comparisons,...

    • Phonology
    • Sound Changes
    • Syntax
    • Morphology
    • Vocabulary
    • See Also

    Proto-Austronesian is reconstructed by constructing sets of correspondences among consonants in the various Austronesian languages, according to the comparative method. Although in theory the result should be unambiguous, in practice given the large number of languages there are numerous disagreements, with various scholars differing significantly ...

    As Proto-Austronesian transitioned to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian, the phonemic inventories were continually reduced by merging formerly distinct sounds into one sound. Three mergers were observed in the Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian transition, while nine were observed for the Proto-Oceanic to Proto...

    Word order

    Proto-Austronesian is a verb-initial language (including VSO and VOS word orders), as most Formosan languages, all Philippine languages, some Bornean languages, all Austronesian dialects of Madagascar, and all Polynesian languages are verb-initial. However, most Austronesian (many of which are Oceanic) languages of Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Micronesia are SVO, or verb-medial, languages. SOV, or verb-final, word order is considered to be typologica...

    Voice system

    The Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Borneo, Madagascar and the Philippines are also well known for their unusual morphosyntactic alignment, which is known as the symmetrical voice (also known as the Austronesian alignment). This alignment was also present in the Proto-Austronesian language. Unlike Proto-Austronesian, however, Proto-Oceanic syntax does not make use of the focus morphology present in Austronesian-aligned languages such as the Philippine languages. In the Polynesian languages,...

    Interrogatives and case markers

    The following table compares Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian question words. Currently, the most complete reconstruction of the Proto-Austronesian case marker system is offered by Malcolm Ross.The reconstructed case markers are as follows: Important Proto-Austronesian grammatical words include the ligature *na and locative *i.

    Morphology and syntax are often hard to separate in the Austronesian languages, particularly the Philippine languages.This is because the morphology of the verbs often affects how the rest of the sentence would be constructed (i.e., syntax).

    Pronouns

    The Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian personal pronouns below were reconstructed by Robert Blust. In 2006, Malcolm Rossalso proposed seven different pronominal categories for persons. The categories are listed below, with the Proto-Austronesian first person singular ("I") given as examples. 1. Neutral (e.g., PAN *i-aku) 2. Nominative 1 (e.g., PAN *aku) 3. Nominative 2 (e.g., PAN *=ku, *[S]aku) 4. Accusative (e.g., PAN *i-ak-ən) 5. Genitive 1 (e.g., PAN *=[a]ku) 6. Genitive 2 (e.g...

    Nouns

    Proto-Austronesian vocabulary relating to agriculture and other technological innovations include: 1. *pajay: rice plant 2. *beRas: husked rice 3. *Semay: cooked rice 4. *qayam: bird (means "domesticated animal" in PMP) 5. *manuk: chicken (PMP *manu-manuk means "bird") 6. *babuy: pig 7. *qaNuaŋ: carabao 8. *kuden: clay cooking pot 9. *SadiRi: housepost 10. *busuR: bow 11. *panaq: flight of an arrow 12. *bubu: fish trap 13. *tulaNi: bamboo nose flute Proto-Malayo-Polynesian innovations include...

    Colors and directions

    Below are colors in reconstructed Proto-Austronesian, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian. The first three have been reconstructed by Robert Blust, while the Proto-Polynesian words given below were reconstructed by Andrew Pawley. Proto-Polynesian displays many innovations not found in the other proto-languages. The Proto-Austronesians used two types of directions, which are the land-sea axis and the monsoon axis. The cardinal directions of north, south, east, and west...

    • Proto-Rukai, Proto-Tsouic, Proto-Northwest Formosan, Proto-Western Plains, Proto-Atayalic, Proto-Eastern Formosasn, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
    • Taiwan
  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AustronesianAustronesian - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Look up Austronesian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Austronesian may refer to: The Austronesian languages The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Austronesian.

  4. The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, [43] are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

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