A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them.
History of the automobile. Development started as early as the 17th century with the invention of the first steam-powered vehicle, which led to the creation of the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation, built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769.
- Types of Automobiles
The word "automobile" comes from the Greek prefix "αυτό" (self) and the Latin word "mobilis" (moving). This name means "self-moving", as cars run on their own power and do not need horsesor other power from outside to move.
Automobiles are made in different shapes and sizes, for people with different needs. Here are some common types. 1. A convertible is an automobile with a roof that can be opened or taken off for an open-air drive. Sportier convertibles are called roadsters. 2. A hatchback is a smaller automobile with a cargo area that uses the same space as the cabin (instead of a separate trunk like in a sedan or coupé). They combine the sportiness of coupés and sedans with the storage space of SUVs. 2.1. A station wagon (estate car in British English) is a hatchback-like automobile that has a less sloped rear window and more space for passengers and luggage. 3. A pickup truck is a truck with a separate cabin and cargo area on a ladder frame. The cargo area is called the "bed". 4. A sedan (saloon in British English) is an automobile with a sloped rear window and separate trunk that has four doors. 4.1. A coupé (coupe in American English) is like a sedan, but usually only has two doors and is seen a...
To make an automobile move, it must have energy to turn the wheels. This energy might be chemical energy in gasoline or electrical energy in a battery. How quickly the engine or motor can send the energy to the wheels, and how much energy is sent, is called the power of the motor. The power of an automobile is usually measured in kilowatts or horsepower.
The earliest recorded automobiles were actually steam engines attached to wagons in the late 18th century. The steam engines were heavy, making these wagons slow and hard to control. Better and faster steam automobiles became common late in the 19th century. Some automobiles in the early 20th century were powered by electricity. They were slow and heavy and went out of use until the idea came back later in the century. The internal combustion engine changed the way many automobiles were powered. The engine used either gasoline, diesel, or kerosene to work. When the fuel is exploded in a cylinder it pushes the piston down and turns the wheels. Although many people tried to make a good automobile that would work and sell well, people say that Karl Benz invented the modern automobile. He used a four-stroke type of internal combustion engine to power his Benz Patent-Motorwagenin 1886. He began to make many automobiles in a factory and sell them in Germany in 1888. In North America, the...
Buying and running a automobile needs a lot of money, especially for newer good-quality automobiles. There are things to pay for — the automobile itself, fuel, parts (for example, tyres), maintenance, repairs, insurance to cover the cost of crashes or theft, parking charges, and toll roads and any taxes or licensing fees charged by the government. When automobiles crash, they can become damaged and hurt people, and the life of a person is more important than keeping a automobile from damage. When too many automobiles try to go the same way, traffic congestion slows them all. Automobiles can cause air pollution if too many are used in a small area like a city, and the combined pollution of the world's automobiles is partly to blame for climate change. Many places where people live close together have public transportation such as buses, trains, trams and subways. These can help people go more quickly and cheaply than by automobile when traffic jams are a problem. Some of these proble...
The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest industries by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive comes from the Greek autos, and Latin motivus, referrin
The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time, the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After 1945, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain num
In 2007, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the
Le terme « automobile » reste employé comme adjectif. Au Québec, le code de la sécurité routière définit le « véhicule automobile » comme « un véhicule routier motorisé qui est adapté essentiellement pour le transport d’une personne ou d’un bien »[réf. nécessaire] . En Suisse, la loi définit les véhicules automobiles ...
An automobile or motor is a wheeled motor vehicle for transportin passengers, that cairies its ain ingine or motor an aw. Maest definitions o the term specify that automobiles ar designed tae run primarily on roads, tae hae seatin for ane tae aicht fowk, tae typically huv fower wheels, an tae be constructed principally for the transport o folk rather than guids.
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This is a list of notable automobile manufacturers with articles on Wikipedia by country. It includes companies that are in business as well as defunct manufacturers.
- Current Production
- See Part of Vehicles
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- External Links
In 2005 63 million cars and light trucks were produced worldwide. The world's biggest car producer (including light trucks) is the European Union with 29% of the world's production. In non-EU Eastern Europe another 4% are produced. The second largest manufacturer is NAFTA with 25.8%, followed by Japan with 16.7%, China with 8.1%, MERCOSUR with 3.9%, India with 2.4% and the rest of the world with 10.1%. Large free trade areas like EU, NAFTA and MERCOSUR attract manufacturers worldwide to produce their products within them and without currency risks or customs, additionally to being close to customers. Thus the production figures do not show the technological ability or business skill of the areas. In fact much if not most of the Third World car production is used western technology and car models (and sometimes even complete obsolete western factories shipped to the country), which is reflected in the patent statistic as well as the locations of the r&d centers. The automobile indust...
Compared to other popular modes of passenger transportation, especially buses, the automobile is relatively uneconomic. There are a number of reasons for this: 1. The typical private car spends most of its lifetime idling and depreciation is a significant proportion of the total cost. 1. Compared to bulk-carrying vehicles such as airplanes, busesand trains, individual vehicles have worse economies of scale. 1. Capacity utilisation is low. The average occupancy of automobiles is below 1.5 passengers in most parts of the world. Measures such as HOV lanestry to address this issue. 1. According to the RACthe average cost of running a new car in the UK is GBP 5,000 (US$ 9,000) per year, or roughly 1/3 of the average net wage, a situation reflected in most other Western nations. Nevertheless demand for automobiles remains high and inelasic, suggesting that its advantages, such as on-demand and door-to-door travel, are highly prized and not easily susbtituted by cheaper alternative modes o...
- Mercury in Canada
- Brand Identity
- See Also
During the mid-1930s, Ford Motor Company was again in danger of being left at a competitive disadvantage to both of its largest competitors (despite the continuing success of its new V8-powered product line). In contrast to the comprehensive line of brands from General Motors (seven) and Chrysler Corporation (four), in 1935, Ford offered only its namesake brand and the cars of Lincoln Motor Company. One of the most expensive vehicles built and sold in the United States, the Lincoln Model K was rivaled in price by the Cadillac V-16, the Packard Eight and Duesenberg Model J. As a solution, Ford launched its own version of the 1920s General Motors Companion Make Program, leading the company to expand from two nameplates to five by the end of the decade. For 1936, Ford introduced the Lincoln-Zephyr sub-marque of Lincoln, giving the line a V12 car to compete against the LaSalle, Chrysler Airstream, and Packard One-Twenty. For 1938, Ford gained a sub-marque of its own with the higher-pric...
During the middle of the 20th century, the small dealership network of Ford Motor Company in Canadanecessitated some branding changes to attract buyers into showrooms. This was especially the case in smaller, rural communities in need of trucks, as these areas were served by either a Ford or a Lincoln-Mercury dealer, but rarely both. Mirroring General Motors in Canada, Monarch competed against Oldsmobile while Meteor competed against Pontiac; Mercury trucks competed against GMC. Following the demise of Edsel and its effects on the Lincoln-Mercury division, Ford largely integrated its model lines across the United States and Canada by the end of the 1960s.
The first logo of the Mercury brand was its namesake, the Roman god Mercury. Towards the early years of the brand, Mercury used its Roman namesake in a silhouette profile (with signature bowl hat with wings, as shown in the image). This logo was briefly revived for 2003–2004, used in the alloy wheel centers of the Mercury Marauder. In the mid-1950s, Mercury introduced "The Big M", the namesake letter with horizontal extensions at its bottom; at the time, Mercury was a prime sponsor of The Ed...
The Mercury styling of the brand is most commonly associated with a waterfall-style grille. First making an appearance in the 1946 Mercury Eight, the design was revived in the 1961–1964 Monterey/Colony Park. The design would reappear in the debut of the Mercury Cougar, as designers sought to differentiate the model from the Ford Mustang. During the 1970s, the vertical waterfall grille design was adapted by nearly all Mercury vehicles (except for the Capri and Comet). In 1986, as part of the i...
In 1957, Mercury introduced the Mercury Turnpike Cruiser, featuring a roofline with a retractable rear window. From 1958 to 1960, the feature made its return on the Continental Mark-series line, with a reverse-slant rear window (on both hardtops and convertibles). For 1963, Mercury reintroduced the feature as an option for the Monterey; to streamline production, elements of the window design were shared with Ford station wagons. From 1963 to 1966, the optional reverse-slant roofline with retr...