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The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them.
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world.
The automotive industry refers to the design, manufacture, marketing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's biggest economic sectors in terms of the money it makes. The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers making the " horseless carriage ".
- World Motor Vehicle Production
- Other Rankings
- Notable Company Relationships
- External Links
The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time, the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After 1945, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production of 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of aut...
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturersdo not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This pro...
In 2007, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.Emerging automobile markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-ve...
[[File:2014 Cars Countries Export Treemap.png|thumb|upright=1.35|left|Car exports by country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries (boldfacedin the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.
These were the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA.
This is the list of the 15 largest publicly-traded car manufacturers by market capitalisation as of 23 January 2021[update], according to CompaniesMarketCap.com.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: 1. Daihatsu holds a 25% stake in Perodua. 2. Daimler holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. 3. Daimler holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. 4. Daimler holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance, while Renault-Nissan A...
^a These figures were before the merger of both Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and Groupe PSA; the latter of which has merged into Stellantisas of January 2021.
This is a list of notable automobile manufacturers with articles on Wikipedia by country. It includes companies that are in business as well as defunct manufacturers. Only companies that have articles here are included.
Overview of the automotive industry in India. Chennai is home to around 35–40% of India's total automobile industry. The Maruti Suzuki Dzire is produced and exported to international markets from India. A Tata Motors next generation concept car at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The automotive industry in India is the sixth-largest in the world.
- Early History
- Postwar Era
- 1980s and 1990s
- 21st Century
Motor-car pioneers Karl Benz (who later went on to start Mercedes-Benz) and Nicolaus Otto developed four-stroke internal combustion engines in the late 1870s, with Benz fitting his design to a coach in 1887, which led to the modern-day motor car. By 1901, Germany was producing about 900 cars a year. In 1926, Daimler-Benz was formed from the predecessor companies of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler and produced cars under the marque of Mercedes-Benz. In 1916 BMWwas founded, but didn't start auto production until 1928. American economist Robert A. Brady extensively documented the rationalization movement that shaped German industry in the 1920s, and although his general model of the movement applied to the automotive industry, the sector was in poor health in the later years of the Weimar Republic. Germany's slow development of the industry left the market open for major American auto manufacturers such as General Motors who took over German company Opel in 1929, and the Ford Motor Comp...
By the end of World War II, most of the auto factories had been destroyed or badly damaged. Germany needed debt relief. The London Agreement on German External Debts of 1953 provided that repayments were only due while West Germany ran a trade surplus, and that repayments were limited to 3% of export earnings. This gave Germany’s creditors a powerful incentive to import German goods, assisting reconstruction of the Car Industry. In addition, the eastern part of Germany was under control of the Soviet Union, which dismantled much of the machinery that was left and sent it back to the Soviet Union as war reparations. Some manufacturers, such as Maybach and Adler (automobile), started up again, but did not continue making passenger cars. The Volkswagen production facility in Wolfsburg continued making the Volkswagen Beetle (Type 1) in 1945, a car which it had intended to make prior to the war (under the name of KdF-Wagen), except that the factory was converted to military truck product...
Volkswagen was faced with major financial difficulties in the early 1970s; with its aging Beetle still selling strongly all over the world but its newer models had been less successful. However, the company then enjoyed a revival with the arrival of the popular Passat in 1973, Golf in 1974 and Polo in 1975 - all of these cars featured the new front-wheel drive hatchback layout which was enjoying a rise in popularity across Europe after first being patented by Renault of France with the R16 in 1965. The Polo was Volkswagen's new entry-level model, and was aimed directly at modern small hatchbacks like the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. The mid-range Golf was seen as the car to eventually replace the Beetle, and was easily the first popular hatchback of this size in Europe, leading to most leading carmakers having a similar-sized hatchback by the early 1980s. Production of the Beetle finished in Germany in 1978, although it continued to be produced in Mexico and Brazil until 2003, with a sma...
The final version of the Opel Kadett was voted European Car of the Year on its launch in 1984, as was the Opel Rekord's successor – the Omega – two years afterwards. The Ascona's successor, the Vectra (still the Vauxhall Cavalier in Britain), was launched in 1988, but missed out of the European Car of the Year accolade to the Fiat Tipo. With the radical changes in car design that took place throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s, Ford responded by substantially altering its model line-up. After launching the Fiesta supermini in 1976, it switched to front-wheel drive and a hatchback on the MK3 Escort on its launch in 1980, and opted to replace the Taunus/Cortina with the Sierra in 1982 - abandoning the hugely popular saloon format for an aerodynamic hatchback, although a saloon version was added in 1987. In 1983, Ford had also responded to the continuing demand for family saloons by launching the Orion, the saloon version of the Escort. The Scorpio replaced the Granada as Ford's Eur...
BMW acquired the British Rover Group in 1994, but large losses led to its sale in 2000. However, BMW retained the Mini (marque) name for a line of new cars, all built in Britain from 2001. During the 1990s, BMW opened a production facility for SUVs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. BMW also acquired the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars name, effective as of 2003, and in the same year established a joint venture in China named BMW Brilliance. Daimler-Benz entered into what was initially called a "merger of equals" with Chrysler Corporation in 1998. However, cultural differences and operating losses led to its dissolution in 2007, although Daimler-Benz kept Chrysler's Chinese joint venture, renamed Beijing Benz. The company also launched the Smart in 1998 and relaunched the Maybach brand in 2002. In addition, during the 1990s they opened a production facility for SUVs in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. On 5 July 2012, Volkswagen AG announced a deal with Porsche resulting in VW's full ownership...
- Chinese Car Brands
- Domestic Manufacturers, Brands and Cars
- See Also
- External Links
China has its traditional “Big four” state-owned domestic car manufacturers: Shanghai General Motors (in partnership with GM), Dongfeng, FAW, and Chang’an. BAICfrequently challenge Chang'an as the fourth largest automaker. Guangzhou Automotive is also state-owned. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (上海汽车集团股份有限公司), also known as SAIC (上汽) and SAIC-GM (上汽通用), is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai. The company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2017, making more than 6.9 million vehicles. SAIC sells vehicles under a variety of brands. Brand names that are exclusive to SAIC include Maxus, MG, Roewe, and Yuejin. Products produced by SAIC joint venture companies are sold under marques including Baojun, Buick, Chevrolet, Iveco, Škoda, Volkswagen, and Wuling. Dongfeng Motor Corporation (东风汽车公司, abbreviated to 东风) is a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhan. The company was the second-l...
China's automobile industry had mainly Soviet origins (plants and licensed auto design were founded in the 1950s, with the help of the USSR) and had small volumes for the first 30 years of the republic, not exceeding 100–200 thousands per year. Since the early 1990s, it has developed rapidly. China's annual automobile production capacity first exceeded one million in 1992. By 2000, China was producing over two million vehicles. After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the development of the automobile market accelerated further. Between 2002 and 2007, China's national automobile market grew by an average 21 percent, or one million vehicles year-on-year. In 2009, China produced 13.79 million automobiles, of which 8 million were passenger cars and 3.41 million were commercial vehicles and surpassed the United States as the world's largest automobile producer by volume. In 2010, both sales and production topped 18 million units, with 13.76 million passenger...
Copying claims controversy
Several Chinese car makers have been accused of copying designs of other companies.
Threats to disclose industry secrets
The Wall Street Journal reported that the government of China will be forcing foreign carmakers to disclose their electric vehicletechnology secrets before the vehicles are allowed to be sold in China. The current Chinese automotive policy states that a foreign carmaker must form a joint-venture with a Chinese carmaker if the former plans to sell its electric vehicles there, with the Chinese carmaker owning 51% of the joint venture. Due to this supposed threat by the Chinese government, Toyot...
China had a total of 6,322 automotive enterprises as of the end of November 2006. The total output value of the automotive sector for the first three quarters of 2006 was US$143 billion.As incomes increase the high annual growth rate of private ownership is expected to accelerate.Anderson, Greg, Designated Drivers: How China Plans to Dominate the Global Auto Industry, book talk at the USC U.S.-China Institute, 2012.
- Economic and Political Significance
- Manufacturers of Automobile Engines
The Russian Empire had a long history of progress in the development of machinery. As early as in the eighteenth century Ivan I. Polzunov constructed the first two-cylinder steam engine in the world, while Ivan P. Kulibin created a human-powered vehicle that had a flywheel, a brake, a gearbox, and roller bearings. One of the world's first tracked vehicles was invented by Fyodor A. Blinov in 1877.In 1896, the Yakovlev engine factory and the Freze carriage-manufacturing workshop manufactured th...
After the 1917 October Revolution, Russo-Balt was nationalised on 15 August 1918, and renamed to Prombronby the new leadership. It continued the production of Russo-Balt cars and launched a new model on 8 October 1922, while AMO built FIAT 15 Ter trucks under licence and released a more modern FIAT-derived truck developed by a team of AMO designers, the AMO-F-15. About 6,000–6,500 F-15s were built in the years 1924–1931. In 1927, engineers from the Scientific Automobile & Motor Institute (NAM...
In the early 1990s the Russian car market expanded dramatically, largely due to a drastic cut on import duties, so that by 1993 foreign-made imported cars made up 49% of all sales. At the same time, Russian automakers were integrated into a market economy and immediately hit by a crisis due to the loss of financial support, economic turmoil, criminal activitiesand stiffer competition in the domestic market during the 1990s. The main domestic manufacturers in the early 1990s were AvtoVAZ, AZLK...
The Russian automotive industry can be divided into four types of companies: local brand producers, foreign OEMs, joint ventures and Russian companies producing foreign brands.In 2008, there were 5,445 companies manufacturing vehicles and related equipment in Russia. The volume of production and sales amounted to 1,513 billion rubles. Cars with diesel engines are not popular in Russia, accounting for just 7.6% of all sales as of 2015, compared to half of the market in much of Western Europe. There are 145,000 natural gas vehicles in Russia as of 2016, or 0.3% of all vehicles in the country. The sale of leaded gasolinewas outlawed in 2003.
Russia's automotive industry is a significant economic sector. It directly employs 600,000 people and supports around 2–3 million people in related industries. It is politically a very important part of the country's economy: firstly, due to the large number of employed people and secondly, because many citizens depend on the social services provided by automotive companies. For example, the well-being of the giant AvtoVAZ factory in Tolyatti is massively important to the city or to the region of Samara Oblast. Tolyatti is a typical monotown, a city whose economy is dependent on a single company. The factory employed around 100,000 people of the city's population of 700,000 in 2009. In 2009, former President Dmitry Medvedev launched the Medvedev modernisation programme, which aims to diversify Russia's raw materials and energy-dominated economy, turning it into a modern high-tech economy based on innovation. Following this, Russia's automotive industry has been in t...
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast
1. Hyundai: established in 2010, produced over 200,000 vehicles in 2016.As of 2016 the plant is the second largest in Russia, and employs 2,200 workers. 2. Nissan: started production in June 2009,produced 33,600 vehicles in 2015. 3. Toyota: manufactured 39,000 vehicles in 2016. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia (TMMR), 224-ha factory in Shusharylaid down in 2005 and launched production on 21 December 2007. In 2007 it produced 20,000 2.4L and 3.5L Toyota Camry vehicles per year. 4. General Mot...
1. Volkswagen: started production in November 2007, produced 110,000 cars in 2016. A 200 m2 facility with a projected full annual output capacity of 150,000 vehicles, reached during 2010, with employees rising to 3,000. All vehicles produced were initially semi knock downs (SKD), with full production planned to start 2010. Served by Grabtsevo Airport, part of Volkswagen Group Russia (OOO Volkswagen Rus). 2. Peugeot Citroen Mitsubishi Automotive: opened in April 2010,produced 25,733 vehicles i...
Volga Federal District
1. Nizhny Novgorod - GAZ, produced 41,691 vehicles in 2015.The plant also produces Volkswagen and Skoda vehicles due to a partnership between Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group. 2. Tolyatti 2.1. AvtoVAZ,produced 356,602 vehicles in 2015. 2.2. GM-AvtoVAZ, produced 34,218 vehicles in 2015. 3. Izhevsk: IzhAvto (Nissan),produced 72,884 vehicles in 2015. 4. Naberezhnye Chelny: Sollers - Naberezhnye Chelny,produced 10,000 vehicles in 2015. 5. Yelabuga: Ford Sollers,produced 10,300 vehicles in 2015....AvtoVAZ, based in Togliatti and established in 1966. Manufactures gasoline engines for passenger cars under the Ladabrand.Cummins Kama, based in Naberezhnye Chelny and established in 2006 as a joint venture between Cummins and Kamaz. Manufactures diesel engines for trucks under the Kamaz brand.Kamaz, based in Naberezhnye Chelny and established in 1969. Manufactures diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks and large buses under the brands KAMAZ, NefAZ, and also for the BTR-80.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Bentley, Caterham Cars, Daimler, Jaguar, Lagonda, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini, Morgan and Rolls-Royce.
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