The Balkans (/ ˈbɔːlkənz / BAWL-kənz), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria.
- 466,877 km² (180,262 sq mi)
- ca. 55 million (32 million only the peninsula's part)
- 2,925 m (9596 ft)
- Southeast Europe (12 Countries)
The Balkans and parts of this area are alternatively situated in Southeast, Southern, Eastern Europe and Central Europe.The distinct identity and fragmentation of the Balkans owes much to its common and often turbulent history regarding centuries of Ottoman conquest and to its very mountainous geography.
The Balkans is a peninsula in Europe. The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and an approximate population of 55 million people. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains, which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia and then continue to Slovenia as the Dinaric Alps.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South and Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city.
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The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War.In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original combatants of the first war along with facing a surprise attack from Romania from the north.
- 8 October 1912 – 18 July 1913, (9 months, 1 week and 3 days), First Balkan War:, 8 October 1912 – 30 May 1913, (7 months, 3 weeks and 1 day), Second Balkan War:, 29 June – 10 August 1913, (1 month, 1 week and 5 days)
- First Balkan War:, Balkan League victory, Treaty of London, Second Balkan War:, Treaty of Bucharest, Treaty of Constantinople
The Balkans campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought to aid Italy by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria and attacking Greece from the east. Meanwhile, the British landed troops and aircraft to shore up Greek defences. A coup d'état in Yugoslavia on 27 March caused Adolf Hitler to order the conquest of that country...
After World War I, with the complete collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Albanians looked to the Kingdom of Italy for protection against its traditional enemies. In 1919, Albania's territorial integrity was confirmed at the Paris Peace Conference after United States President Woodrow Wilson opposed a plan by the European powers to divide Albania amongst its neighbors. However, after 1925, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini sought to dominate Albania. In 1928, Alban
The Italian invasion of Greece lasted from 28 October 1940 to 30 April 1941. Italian forces invaded Greece and made limited gains. But soon the Greeks counter-attacked and the Italians were driven back to the Albanian border. The Italians spent much of the winter stabilizing a li
The invasion of Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941 and ended with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on 17 April. The invading Axis powers occupied and dismembered the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. By cobbling together Bosnia and Herzegovina, some parts of Croatia, and
Hitler began planning to invade Greece in November 1940, after the British occupied Crete and Lemnos. He ordered the German Invasion of Greece—code-named Unternehmen Marita by Germany—on 13 December 1940 for execution in March 1941. The stated aim of the operation was to ...
By 1 June 1941, all of Albania, Yugoslavia and Greece were under Axis control. Greece was placed under triple occupation, and Yugoslavia was dissolved and occupied. Germany had gained a significant strategic advantage: direct access to the Mediterranean.
The Central Balkan Mountains run from Arabakonak to the Vratnik Pass with a length of 207 kilometres (129 mi). Botev Peak, the highest mountain in the Balkan range at 2,376 metres (7,795 ft), is located in this section. The Eastern Balkan Mountains extend from the Vratnik Pass to Cape Emine with a length of 160 kilometres (99 mi). The highest ...
- Serbian–Montenegrin campaign
- Macedonian front
The Balkans theatre, or Balkan campaign, of World War I was fought between the Central Powers and the Allies. The campaign began with Austria-Hungary's offensive into Serbia, which was repulsed. A new attempt led to the Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian conquest of Serbia and Montenegro. That led to the Serbian army to retreat through Albania and to be evacuated to Salonika by the Allies. There, they joined with the Franco-British Allied Army of the Orient and fought a protracted trench war against
A major cause of the war was the hostility between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, which made some of the earliest fighting take place between them. Serbia held out against Austria-Hungary for more than a year before it was conquered in late 1915. Dalmatia was a strategic region during the war that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy entered the war upon agreeing to the Treaty of London, 1915, which guaranteed Italy a substantial portion of Dalmatia. In 1917, Greece e
The Serbian army managed to rebuff the larger Austro-Hungarian Army because Russia assisted by invading from the north. In 1915, Austro-Hungary placed additional soldiers in the south front and succeed in engaging Bulgaria as an ally. Soon, the Serbian army was attacked from the north and the east, forcing a retreat to Greece. Despite the loss, the retreat was successful, and the Serbian army remained operational in Greece with a newly-established base.
Prior to direct intervention in the war, Italy had occupied the port of Vlorë in Albania in December 1914. Upon entering the war, Italy spread its occupation to region of southern Albania beginning in autumn 1916. Italian forces in 1916 recruited Albanian irregulars to serve alongside them. Italy, with permission of the Allied command, occupied Northern Epirus on 23 August 1916, forcing the neutralist Greek army to withdraw its occupation forces there. In June 1917, Italy proclaimed central and
In the aftermath of the Balkan Wars Bulgarian opinion turned against Russia and the western powers, whom the Bulgarians felt had done nothing to help them. The government aligned Bulgaria with Germany and Austria-Hungary, even though this meant also becoming an ally of the Ottomans, Bulgaria's traditional enemy. But Bulgaria now had no claims against the Ottomans, whereas Serbia, Greece and Romania were all in possession of lands heavily populated by Bulgarians and thus perceived as Bulgarian. B
In 1915, the Austro-Hungarians gained military support from Germany and, with diplomacy, brought in Bulgaria as an ally. Serbian forces were attacked from both north and south and were forced to retreat through Montenegro and Albania, with only 155,000 Serbs, mostly soldiers, reaching the coast of the Adriatic Sea and evacuated to Greece by Allied ships. The Macedonian front stabilized roughly around the Greek border after the intervention of a Franco-British-Italian force that had landed in Sal
- related to: Balkans wikipedia