A base pair (bp) is a fundamental unit of double-stranded nucleic acids consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.
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A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules. The four main wobble base pairs are guanine-uracil (G-U), hypoxanthine-uracil (I-U), hypoxanthine-adenine (I-A), and hypoxanthine-cytosine (I-C).
In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA strands that are connected by hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). In DNA pairing, adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T), to form an A/T base pair. Guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) in DNA, to form a G/C base pair. Related pages. DNA
- Chemical properties
- Triplex structures
- Quadruplex structures
- Triple-helix base pairing
A Hoogsteen base pair is a variation of base-pairing in nucleic acids such as the A•T pair. In this manner, two nucleobases, one on each strand, can be held together by hydrogen bonds in the major groove. A Hoogsteen base pair applies the N7 position of the purine base and C6 amino group, which bind the Watson-Crick face of the pyrimidine base.
Ten years after James Watson and Francis Crick published their model of the DNA double helix, Karst Hoogsteen reported a crystal structure of a complex in which analogues of A and T formed a base pair that had a different geometry from that described by Watson and Crick. Similarly, an alternative base-pairing geometry can occur for G•C pairs. Hoogsteen pointed out that if the alternative hydrogen-bonding patterns were present in DNA, then the double helix would have to assume a quite ...
Hoogsteen pairs have quite different properties from Watson-Crick base pairs. The angle between the two glycosidic bonds is larger and the C1′–C1′ distance is smaller than in the regular geometry. In some cases, called reversed Hoogsteen base pairs, one base is rotated 180° with respect to the other. In some DNA sequences, especially CA and TA dinucleotides, Hoogsteen base pairs exist as transient entities that are present in thermal equilibrium with standard Watson–Crick base ...
This non-Watson-Crick base-pairing allows the third strands to wind around the duplexes, which are assembled in the Watson-Crick pattern, and form triple-stranded helices such as and. It can be also seen in three-dimensional structures of transfer RNA, as T54•A58 and U8•A14.
Hoogsteen pairs also allows formation of secondary structures of single stranded DNA and RNA G-rich called G-quadruplexes. Evidence exists for both in vitro and in vivo formation of G4s. Genomic G4s have been suggested to regulate gene transcription and at the RNA level inhibit protein synthesis through steric inhibition of ribosome function. It needs four triplets of G, separated by short spacers. This permits assembly of planar quartets which are composed of stacked associations of Hoogsteen b
Watson-Crick base pairs are indicated by a "•", "-", or a ".". Hoogsteen triple-stranded DNA base pairs are indicated by a "*" or a ":".
Non-canonical base pairing occurs when nucleobases hydrogen bond, or base pair, to one another in schemes other than the standard Watson-Crick base pairs (which are adenine (A) -- thymine (T) in DNA, adenine (A) -- uracil (U) in RNA, and guanine (G) -- cytosine (C) in both DNA and RNA).
Jan 01, 2014 · The GC pair is stronger than the AU pair by up to 2 kcal/mol, and it is more stabilizing when it appears as a closing base pair. Wobble Pairs Wobble pairs are non-Watson-Crick pairs involving bases at the final "wobble" position of the codon-anticodon pair.
In molecular biology, a base pair is any of the pairs of nucleotides connecting the complementary strands of a molecule of DNA or RNA, that are held together by weak chemical bonds, which make up the "rungs" on a DNA "ladder" known as the double helix. The base pairs in DNA include: adenine thymine and guanine cytosine in DNA. (TNG: "Unnatural Selection") In 2153, Doctor Phlox analyzed the ...
Each of the base pairs in a typical double-helix DNA comprises a purine and a pyrimidine: either an A paired with a T or a C paired with a G. These purine-pyrimidine pairs, which are called base complements, connect the two strands of the helix and are often compared to the rungs of a ladder. The pairing of purines and pyrimidines may result ...
Dec 14, 2017 · Base Pair is the tenth episode of Season Two of Syfy's Van Helsing. This is overall the twenty-third episode.1 1 Synopsis 2 Recap 3 Cast 4 Multimedia 5 Trivia 6 Episode Guide 7 References Vanessa discovers who her captors are and learn that they intend on using her to cure the vampire plague...