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    Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with Vajrayana Buddhism as the state religion . The subalpine Himalayan mountains in the north rise from the country's lush subtropical plains in the south. In the Bhutanese Himalayas, there are peaks higher than 7,000 meters (23,000 ft) above sea level.

    • National Symbols of Bhutan
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    National animal of Bhutan
    National bird of Bhutan
    National tree of Bhutan
    National flower of Bhutan
    The Subalpinelandscape common in Bhutan
    A Himalayan mountain seen from the town of Bumthang

    The Royal Bhutan Army is Bhutan's military service. It includes the Royal Bodyguard and the Royal Bhutan Police. Membership is voluntary, and the minimum age for recruitment is 18. The standing army numbers about 16,000 and is trained by the Indian Army. Being a landlocked country, Bhutan has no navy. It also has no air force or army aviation corps. The Army relies on Eastern Air Command of the Indian Air Forcefor air assistance.

    More than 770 species of bird and 5,400 species of plants are known to occur throughout the kingdom. Bhutan has a rich primate life with rare species such as the golden langur.

    Bhutan's national sport is archery. Competitions are held regularly in most villages. Cricket has gained popularity in Bhutan, particularly since the introduction of television channels from India. The Bhutan national cricket team is one of the more successful affiliate nations in the region. Footballis also an increasingly popular sport.

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    • Dzongkha
  2. Bhutan. /  27.500°N 90.500°E  / 27.500; 90.500. The Kingdom of Bhutan is a sovereign nation, located towards the eastern extreme of the Himalayas mountain range. It is fairly evenly sandwiched between the sovereign territory of two nations: first, the People's Republic of China on the north and northwest.

    • Prehistory
    • Origins and Early Settlement, 600–1600
    • Theocratic Government, 1616–1907
    • Establishment of The Hereditary Monarchy, 1907
    • Development of Centralized Government, 1926–52
    • Modernization Under Jigme Dorji, 1952–72
    • International Relations, 1972–Present
    • Formalized Democracy
    • References
    • Further Reading

    Neolithic tools found in Bhutan indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 11,000 years.[dubious – discuss] The earliest inhabitants of Bhutan and the adjoining Himalayan areas of South Asia were people from the Indus Valley Civilization.[citation needed]

    A state of Lhomon (literally, southern darkness) or Monyul (dark land, a reference to the Monpa one of the Tibeto-Burman people of Bhutan), possibly a part of Tibet that was then beyond the pale of Buddhist teachings. Monyul is thought to have existed between AD 100 and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (southern Mon sandalwood country) and Lhomon Khashi (southern Mon country of four approaches), found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles, may also have credence and have been used by some Bhutanese scholars when referring to their homeland. Variations of the Sanskrit words Bhota-ant (end of Bhot) or Bhu-uttan (meaning highlands) have been suggested by historians as origins of the name Bhutan, which came into common foreign use in the late 19th century and is used in Bhutan only in English-language official correspondence. The traditional name of the country since the 17th century has been Drukyul—country of the Drukpa, the Dragon people, or the Land of the Thunder Dragon,...

    Consolidation and defeat of Tibetan invasions, 1616–51

    In the 17th century, a theocratic government independent of Tibetan political influence was established, and premodern Bhutan emerged. The theocratic government was founded by an expatriate Drukpa monk, Ngawang Namgyal, who arrived in Bhutan in 1616 seeking freedom from the domination of the Gelugpa subsect led by the Dalai Lama(Ocean Lama) in Lhasa. After a series of victories over rival subsect leaders and Tibetan invaders, Ngawang Namgyal took the title Zhabdrung (At Whose Feet One Submits...

    Administrative integration and conflict with Tibet, 1651–1728

    To keep Bhutan from disintegrating, Ngawang Namgyal's death in 1651 apparently was kept a carefully guarded secret for fifty-four years. Initially, Ngawang Namgyal was said to have entered into a religious retreat, a situation not unprecedented in Bhutan, Sikkim, or Tibet during that time. During the period of Ngawang Namgyal's supposed retreat, appointments of officials were issued in his name, and food was left in front of his locked door. Ngawang Namgyal's son and stepbrother, in 1651 and...

    Civil conflict, 1728–72

    Though the invaders were unable to take control, the political system remained unstable. Regional rivalries contributed to the gradual disintegration of Bhutan at the time the first British agents arrived. In the early 18th century, Bhutan had successfully developed control over the principality of Cooch Behar. The raja of Cooch Behar had sought assistance from Bhutan against the Indian Mughals in 1730, and Bhutanese political influence was not long in following. By the mid-1760s, Thimphu con...

    Ugyen Wangchuck's emergence as the national leader coincided with the realization that the dual political system was obsolete and ineffective. He had removed his chief rival, the ponlop of Paro, and installed a supporter and relative, a member of the pro-British Dorji family, in his place. When the last Zhabdrung died in 1903 and a reincarnation had not appeared by 1906, civil administration came under the control of Ugyen Wangchuck. Finally, in 1907, the fifty-fourth and last Druk Desi was forced to retire, and despite recognitions of subsequent reincarnations of Ngawang Namgyal, the Zhabdrung system came to an end. In November 1907, an assembly of leading Buddhist monks, government officials, and heads of important families was held to end the moribund 300-year-old dual system of government and to establish a new absolute monarchy. Ugyen Wangchuck was elected its first hereditary Druk Gyalpo ("Dragon King") and subsequently reigned from 1907 to 1926. Bhutan's Political Officer Joh...

    Ugyen Wangchuck died in 1926 and was succeeded by his son, Jigme Wangchuck(reigned 1926–52). The second Druk Gyalpo continued his father's centralization and modernization efforts and built more schools, dispensaries, and roads. During Jigme Wangchuck's reign, monasteries and district governments were increasingly brought under royal control. However, Bhutan generally remained isolated from international affairs. The issue of Bhutan's status vis-à-vis the government of India was reexamined by London in 1932 as part of the issue of the status of India itself. It was decided to leave the decision to join an Indian federation up to Bhutan when the time came. When British rule over India ended in 1947, so too did Britain's association with Bhutan. India succeeded Britain as the de facto protector of the Himalayan kingdom, and Bhutan retained control over its internal government. It was two years, however, before a formal agreement recognized Bhutan's independence. Following the preceden...

    The third Druk Gyalpo, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, was enthroned in 1952. Earlier he had married the European-educated cousin of the chogyal (king) of Sikkim and with her support made continual efforts to modernize his nation throughout his twenty-year reign. Among his first reforms was the establishment of the National Assembly — the Tshogdu— in 1953. Although the Druk Gyalpo could issue royal decrees and exercise veto power over resolutions passed by the National Assembly, its establishment was a major move toward a constitutional monarchy. When the Chinese communists took over Tibet in 1951, Bhutan closed its frontier with Tibet and sided with its powerful neighbor to the south. To offset the chance of Chinese encroachment, Bhutan began a modernization program. Land reform was accompanied by the abolition of slavery and serfdom and the separation of the judiciary from the executive branch of government. Mostly funded by India after China's invasion of Tibet in 1959, the modernization...

    When civil war broke out in Pakistan in 1971, Bhutan was the first nation to recognize the new government of Bangladesh, and formal diplomatic relations were established in 1973. An event in 1975 may have served as a major impetus to Bhutan to speed up reform and modernization. In that year, neighboring Sikkim's monarchy, which had endured for more than 300 years, was ousted following a plebiscite in which the Nepalese majority outvoted the Sikkimese minority. Sikkim, long a protectorate of India, became India's twenty-second state. To further ensure its independence and international position, Bhutan gradually established diplomatic relations with other nations and joined greater numbers of regional and international organizations. Many of the countries with which Bhutan established relations provided development aid. Moderization of daily life brought new problems to Bhutan in the late 1980s.Television broadcast was official introduced in Bhutan in 1999.


    On March 26, 2005, "an auspicious day when the stars and elements converge favourably to create an environment of harmony and success", the king and government distributed a draft of the country's first constitution, requesting that every citizen review it. A new house of parliament, the National Council, is chartered consisting of 20 elected representatives from each of the dzonghags, persons selected by the King. The National Council would be paired with the other already existing house, th...

    Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck

    On December 15, 2006, the fourth Druk Gyalpo, His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuck, abdicated all of his powers as King to his son, Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, with a specific intention to prepare the young King for the country's transformation to a full-fledged, democratic form of government due to occur in 2008. The previous King's abdication in favour of his son was originally set to occur in 2008 as well, but there was an apparent concern that the new King should have hands-on ex...


    1. Rose, Leo E. (1977), The Politics of Bhutan, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-0909-7 2. Phuntsho, Karma (2013). The History of Bhutan. Nodia: Random House India. ISBN 9788184003116. 3. Worden, Robert L. (1991), "Bhutan", in Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.), Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies, Library of Congress. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

    Kinga, Sonam (2009), Polity, Kingship, and Democracy: A biography of the Bhutaneae state, Thimphu: Ministry of Education, OCLC 477284586, OL 24074384M

    • Overview
    • Demographic statistics
    • Education

    This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bhutan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Bhutanese people in national dress at the Wangdi Phodrang festival The Royal Government of Bhutan listed the country's population as 752,700 in 2003. The Bhutanese numbers can be reconstructed from their 9th Five Year Plan documents, which lists the exact number of

    The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

    As of 2017, Bhutan has a literacy rate of 71.4 percent. The highest literacy rate is observed in Thimpu at 83.9 percent, followed by Trongsa and Chukha, while Gasa has the lowest rate with 59.8 percent of its population being literate.

  3. Economy of Bhutan. All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars. The economy of Bhutan, one of the world's smallest and least developed countries, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 60% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry.

    • 1 July – 30 June
    • ngultrum (BTN)
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