Cuba (/ ˈ k juː b ə / KEW-bə, Spanish: ()), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] ()), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
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Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (/ ˈ k æ s t r oʊ /; American...
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The president of Cuba (Spanish: Presidente de Cuba),...
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Cuba is famous for many types of music, especially dance music such as the Salsa and Mambo. Because Cubans have ancestors from Spain, Africa, South America and North America, Cuban music is special and different. Reading is very popular in Cuba. Many people especially enjoy reading books or things that come from outside the country, even though the government does not approve of this. They also love music and sports. Cuban music is very lively. This is because a lot of it comes from African and Spanish rhythms. Baseball, basketball, and athletics events are loved by many Cuban people. The Cheifs football-team took at one Football-World-Cup part. In 1938, they reached the quarter-final and lost against Sweden0:8.A mapof Cuba made in 1680Slaves forced to grow sugar cane on a Cuban plantationCuban revolutionariesin 1958
The country is divided into 15 provinces and one special municipality (Isla de la Juventud). The provinces are divided into municipalities.
The population of Cuba is close to 13 million. The people of Cuba come from three different groups. The largest group is the descendants of the Spanish settlers who came to Cuba. The smallest group is the descendants of the black African slaves who were brought in to do the work and birth children (in the barracoon) as New Worldslaves who could be legally sold into life time bondage in the United States. The middle-sized group is a mix of African and Spanish. The government succeeded in seeing that the three different groups were treated the same. According to a DNA Caribbean Studies Institute, the racial-makeup of the population of Cuba is: 1. European Cubans descend from settlers that came during the very late 15th century and onward. Most white Cubans came from many different parts of Spain, but the most numerous were the Canary Islanders, Andalusians, and Catalans. There was as well some French, Italian and English peoples. Whites makeup approximately 30% of Cuba's population as...
Cuba is a developing country, and is often depicted as a very poor country. In some aspects, however, like education, health care and life expectancy it ranks much better than most countries in Latin America. Its infant death rate is lower than some developed countries.The average life expectancy is 78 years. All the children are required to go to school from six to twelve years old, and nearly everybody is able to read and write at least. There is free education at every level. Because of this, Cuba has a 99.8% literacy rate. In 2006, the World Food Programme certified Cuba to be the only country in this region without undernourished children. In the same year, the United Nations said that Cuba was the only nation in the world that met the World Wide Fund for Nature's definition of sustainable development.
Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies. It has many resources. Only about one-fourth of the land is mountains or hills. Much of the land is gentle hills or plains which are good for farming or raising cattle. Cuba has fertile soil and a mostly warm and humidodity climate that makes it a great place for growing crops. Sugar is the most important crop of Cuba, and they may get it from the sugar cane. Sugar cane is the largest cash crop grown in Cuba, and it brings in most of the money. After that, the second is tobacco. Tobacco is made into cigars by hand. A hand-made cigar is considered by many people to be the finest in the world. Other important crops are rice, coffee, and fruit. Cuba also has many minerals. Cobalt, nickel, iron, copper, and manganese are all on the island. Salt, petroleum, and natural gas are there too. The coast of Cuba has many bays and a few good harbors. Havana, which is the capital, is also a port. Other harbors have port cities. Nuevitas is a port cit...
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Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Cuba has an official area of 109,884 km2. Its area is 110,860 km2 including coastal and territorial waters. This makes it the 8th largest island country in the world. The main island has 5,746 km of coastline and 28.5 km of land borders—all figures including the United States territory at Guantánamo Bay, where the U.S. Navy's Guantanamo Bay Naval Base is located. Cuba lies west of the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Gulf of Mexico, south...
Cuba is located 77 km west of Haiti across the Windward Passage, 21 km south of The Bahamas, 150 km south of the United States, 210 km east of Mexico, and 140 km north of Jamaica. It was made in three stages.
Natural resources include cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, salt, timber, silica, oil and petroleum. At one time, the whole island was covered with forests and there are still many cedar, chechem, mahogany, and other valuable trees. Large areas were cleared to grow more sugarcane, and so few trees remained that timber had to be imported.
Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and one special municipality. Provinces are further subdivided into 168 municipalities.
1. Cuba es una sociedad multirracial con fuertes orígenes en la península ibérica y en el continente africano. En Cuba está presente, de igual forma, una gran comunidad del antiguo espacio post soviético, así como chinos. El último censo realizado en el 2012 evidenció un progresivo mestizaje de la población.
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The Republic o Cuba ( Spaingie pronunciation: [ˈkuβa]) is a kintra in the Americaes. It conseests o the island o Cuba (the lairgest an secont-maist populous island o the Greater Antilles ), the island o Isla de la Juventud, an monie adjacent wee islands. Havana is the maist muckle ceety in Cuba an is the kintra's caipital.
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Before the Revolution
Although Cuba belonged to the high-income countries of Latin America since the 1870s, income inequality was high, accompanied by capital outflows to foreign investors.The country's economy had grown rapidly in the early part of the century, fueled by the sale of sugar to the United States. Prior to the Cuban Revolution, Cuba ranked fifth in the hemisphere in per capita income, third in life expectancy, second in per capita ownership of automobiles and telephones, and first in the number of te...
On March 3, 1959, Fidel Castro seized control of the Cuban Telephone Company, which was a subsidiary of the International Telephone and Telecommunications Corporation.This was the first of many nationalizations made by the new government, the assets seized totaled US$9 billion. After the 1959 Revolution, citizens were not required to pay a personal income tax (their salaries being regarded as net of any taxes). The government also began to subsidize healthcareand education for all citizens; t...
The Cuban gross domestic product declined at least 35% between 1989 and 1993 due to the loss of 80% of its trading partners[clarification needed] and Soviet subsidies. This loss of subsidies coincided with a collapse in world sugar prices. Sugar had done well from 1985–90 and crashed precipitously in 1990–91 and did not recover for five years. Cuba had been insulated from world sugar prices by Soviet price guarantees. However, the Cuban economy began to improve once again following a rapid im...
As of 2011, 96% of electricity was produced from fossil fuels. Solar panels were introduced in some rural areas to reduce blackouts, brownouts and use of kerosene. Citizens were encouraged to swap inefficient lamps with newer models to reduce consumption. A power tariff reduced inefficient use. As of August 2012, off-shore petroleum exploration of promising formations in the Gulf of Mexicohad been unproductive with two failures reported. Additional exploration is planned. In 2007, Cuba produc...
Cuba produces sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans and livestock. As of 2015, Cuba imported about 70–80% of its food. and 80–84% of the food it rations to the public.Raúl Castro ridiculed the bureaucracy that shackled the agriculture sector.
In total, industrial production accounted for almost 37% of Cuban GDP, or US$6.9 billion and employed 24% of the population, or 2,671,000 people, in 1996.A rally in sugar prices in 2009 stimulated investment and development of sugar processing. In 2003 Cuba's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry was gaining in importance. Among the products sold internationally are vaccines against various viral and bacterial pathogens. For example, the drug Heberprot-P was developed as...
Typical wages range from 400 non-convertible Cuban pesos a month, for a factory worker, to 700 per month for a doctor, or a range of around 17–30 US dollars per month. However, the Human Development Index of Cuba still ranks much higher than the vast majority of Latin American nations. After Cuba lost Soviet subsidies in 1991, malnutrition resulted in an outbreak of diseases. Despite this, the poverty level reported by the government is one of the lowest in the developing world, ranking 6th out of 108 countries, 4th in Latin America and 48th among all countries. Pensions are among the smallest in the Americas at $9.50/month. In 2009, Raúl Castro increased minimum pensions by 2 dollars, which he said was to recompense for those who have "dedicated a great part of their lives to working... and who remain firm in defense of socialism". Cuba is known for its system of food distribution, the Libreta de Abastecimiento("Supplies booklet"). The system establishes the rations each person is...Bodegas – Local shops offering basic products such as rice, sugar, salt, beans, cooking oil, matches, rum at low prices.El Coppelia – A government-owned facility offering ice cream, juice and sweets.Paladar – A type of small, privately owned restaurant facility.La Farmacia – Low-priced medicine, with the lowest costs anywhere in the world.
The relationship cultivated between Cuba and Venezuela in recent years resulted in agreements in which Venezuela provides cheap oil in exchange for Cuban "missions" of doctors to bolster the Venezuelan health care system. As of 2015, Cuba had the third-highest number of physicians per capita worldwide (behind Monaco and Qatar) The country sends tens of thousands of doctors to other countries as aid, as well as to obtain favorable trade terms. In nominal terms, the Venezuelan subsidy is higher than whatever subsidy the Soviet Union gave to Cuba,with the Cuban state receiving cheap oil and the Cuban economy receiving around $6 billion annually. According to Carmelo Mesa-Lago, a Cuban-born US economist, "If this help stops, industry is paralysed, transportation is paralysed and you'll see the effects in everything from electricity to sugar mills". From an economic standpoint, Cuba relies much more on Venezuela than Venezuela does on Cuba. As of 2012, Venezuela accounted for 20.8% of Cu...
In 2014 Cuba's economic freedom score was 28.7, making its economy one of the world's least free. Its overall score was 0.2 point higher than last year, with deteriorations in trade freedom, fiscal freedom, monetary freedom and freedom from corruption counterbalanced by an improvement in business freedom. Cuba ranked least free of 29 countries in the South and Central Americaregion and its overall score was significantly lower than the regional average. Over the 20-year history of the Index, Cuba's economic freedom remained stagnant near the bottom of the “repressed” category. Its overall score improvement was less than 1 point over the past two decades, with score gains in fiscal freedom and freedom from corruption offset by double-digit declines in business freedom and investment freedom. Despite some progress in restructuring the state sector since 2010, the private sector remained constrained by heavy regulations and tight state controls. The Heritage Foundationstates that open-...
As of 2009, Cuba had $47.08 billion in revenues and $50.34 billion in expenditures with 34.6% of GDP in public debt, an account balance of $513 million and $4.647 billion in reserves of foreign exchange and gold.Government spending is around 67 percent of GDP and public debt is around 35 percent of the domestic economy. Despite reforms, the government continues to play a large role in the economy. The top individual income tax rate is 50 percent. The top corporate tax rate is 30 percent (35 percent for wholly foreign-owned companies). Other taxes include a tax on property transfers and a sales tax. The overall tax burden is 24.4 percent of GDP.
1. Cuba in Transition: Volume 19.Cuba's Economic Struggles from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital ArchivesARCHIBOLD, RANDAL. Inequality Becomes More Visible in Cuba as the Economy Shifts (February 2015), The New York TimesCave, Danien. Raúl Castro Thanks U.S., but Reaffirms Communist Rule in Cuba (December 2014), The New York Times."Mr. Castro prioritized economics. He acknowledged that Cuban state workers needed be...
- Upper-middle income economy
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- Cuban peso (CUP) = 100 cents and Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC) = 25 CUP
- 11,338,138 (2018)
Cuba, en forme longue la république de Cuba (en espagnol : República de Cuba), est un État insulaire des Caraïbes formé de l'île de Cuba (la plus grande île des Antilles), de l'île de la Jeunesse (appelée île aux Pins jusqu'en 1978) et de 4 095 cayes et îlots , , .
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Denumirea „Cuba” provine din limba taino și, deși semnificația exactă nu este clară, aceasta poate fi tradusă ca „teren fertil” (cubao) sau ca „loc minunat” (coabana). Se spune că numele „Cuba” a fost dat de Cristofor Columb, după orașul Cuba din districtul Beja din Portugalia.
Articol principal: Politica Cubei Cuba este un stat socialist, sau o republică parlamentară condusă de un partid comunist, care deține monopolul puterii politice. (Toate partidele de opoziție sunt considerate ilegale de constituția cubaneză, care afirmă că "Partidul Comunist Cubanez ... este forța supremă călăuzitoare a societății și a statului"). Fidel Castro a fost șeful statului și șef al guvernului din 1959 până în 2008, la început ca prim-ministru ș,i după desființarea acestei funcții în 1976, ca președinte al Consiliului de Stat și de Miniștri. Este, de asemenea, membru, din 1976, al Adunării Naționale a Puterii Populare din partea municipalității orașului Santiago de Cuba, Prim Secretar al Partidului Comunist Cubanez și comandant suprem al forțelor armate. Din motive de sănătate, în august 2006 Fidel Castro a transferat toate prerogativele sale fratelui său, Raúl Castro, care, în februarie 2008, este numit președinte al Cubei. Parlamentul unicameral cubanez este Asamblea Naci...
Articol principal: Provinciile Cubei Cuba este împărțită în 14 provincii cu 169 de municipalități și o municipalitate specială (Isla de la Juventud).
Insula alungită Cuba este cea mai mare insulă din Caraibe și este mărginită la nord de Strâmtoarea Florida și de Oceanul Atlantic de Nord, la nord-vest de Golful Mexic, la vest de Canalul Yucatan, la sud de Marea Caraibelor, iar la est de Strâmtoarea Windward. Cuba ocupă întreaga insulă și alte insulițe învecinate (în total mai mult de 4000), precum Isla de la Juventud, cunoscută și sub numele de Insula Pinilor. Excepție face Golful Guantanamo, o bază navală care a fost închiriată de Statele Unite încă din 1903. Insula principală La Isla grande este a 15-a ca mărime din lume, cu o lungime de circa 1250 km și o lățime de la 35 la 145 km. Relieful insulei e variat: câmpii întinse până la cele ușor vălurite, dealuri abrupte și munți, în principal, în partea de nord. Cel mai înalt vârf este Pico Real del Turquino (1.974 m). Climaeste tropicală, îmblânzită de vânturi regulate. Este un sezon uscat din noiembrie până în aprilie și unul ploios din mai până în octombrie. Havana este cel mai...
Articol principal: Economia Cubei Economia Cubei este una a proprietății de stat, cu câteva mici întreprinderi private. Turismul a devenit principala sursă de venituri, iar între 1993 și 2004, dolarul SUAdevenise monedă oficială (economia folosea un sistem cu două valute). Economia cubaneză a fost greu lovită de colapsul Uniunii Sovietice și al CAER-ului, cu statele căruia făcea, în principal, comerț. Printre problemele mai recente se numără prețul ridicat al țițeiului, recesiunea piețelor principalelor sale produse de export, zahărul și nichelul, distrugerile provocate de uragane, (uraganul Charley a făcut pagube de aproximativ 1 miliard de dolari), recesiunea în turism și condițiile nesigure din economia mondială. La sfârșitul anului 2003 și începutul lui 2004, atât turismul. cât și prețul nichelului au avut creșteri. Un factor important al restabilirii economiei cubaneze sunt banii expediați de americanii de origine cubaneză (care reprezintă aproximativ 3% din economia tării, dup...
Articole principale: Santería, Palo Monte, Catolicism Peisajul religios al Cubei este marcat puternic de sincretismele de diferite tipuri. În era postrevoluționară, religia a fost descurajată, iar din 1962 până în 1992, Cuba a fost, în mod oficial, un stat ateu. După această dată, prin amendarea constituției, Cuba a devenit, formal, un stat secular. Deși vizita Papei Ioan Paul al II-lea a revigorat catolicismul oficial, cubanezii sunt de mai multe confesiuni, de la catolicismul popular la peste 50 de versiuni ale protestantismului sau la spiritism sau credințe originare din Africa. Cele mai importante curente necreștine sunt: Regla de Ocha (cunoscută și ca Santería), care derivă din credința Yoruba; Regla de Palo Monte, care derivă din credințe locale congoleze, și Sociedad Secreta Abakuá, care derivă din credințele societăților secrete masculine din regiunea Calabar, din sud-estul Nigeriei. Alte credințe sunt bisericile Penticostale. Se crede că Santeria și catolicismul popular sun...
Cubans ( Spanish: Cubanos ), are people born in Cuba or with Cuban citizenship. Cuba is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic, religious and national backgrounds. As a result, Cubans generally do not equate their ethnicity with nationality but with citizenship and their allegiance to Cuba. Cubans.
- 164,853 (2020)
- 24,485 (2019)
- 1,359,990 (2019)
- 23,476 (2019) **