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Fever, also referred to as pyrexia, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set point. There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 40 and 42.3 °C (104.0 and 108.1 °F) in humans.
"Fever" is a song written by Eddie Cooley and Otis Blackwell, who used the pseudonym John Davenport. It was originally recorded by American R&B singer Little Willie John for his debut album, Fever (1956), and released as a single in April of the same year.
- "Letter from My Darling"
- May 1956
- Rhythm and blues
A fever is when a person's body temperature is hotter than 37.5 degrees Celsius (99.5 Fahrenheit). Normal body temperature for humans varies based on a variety of factors, including age and level of physical activity. 
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"Fever" is a song by English singer Dua Lipa and Belgian singer Angèle from the digital reissue and French edition of the former's second studio album Future Nostalgia. The song was written by the two artists alongside Caroline Ailin, Jacob Kasher Hindlin, Julia Michaels, and its producer Ian Kirkpatrick. It was released for digital download and streaming on 29 October 2020 through Warner Records as the album's sixth single. "Fever" is a dance-pop and deep house song with 2000s Eurodance...
"Fever" was written by Lipa, Angèle, Caroline Ailin, Ian Kirkpatrick, Jacob Kasher Hindlin, and Julia Michaels, while the production was handled by Kirkpatrick. Lipa originally intended to place a solo version of the song on her second studio album Future Nostalgia, but thought that its "lithe" tropical beat didn't fit the album's sound. She decided to save it for a permutation of the album. Following Future Nostalgia's March 2020 release, Lipa decided to contact Angèle's manager via ...
Rumours of a collaboration between Lipa and Angèle began in October 2020 after the two were spotted filming its music video in London. They began teasing the release of their collaboration on social media on 23 October 2020, exchanging the thermometer emoji back and forth. On 26 October 2020, Lipa formally announced that their collaboration would be called "Fever" and that it was scheduled for a release four days later. The song premiered at 23:00 GMT on 29 October 2020. It was included on ...
In Rolling Stone, Brittany Spanos and Althea Legaspi complimented how Lipa and Angèle's vocal intertwine with one and other, and how it compliments the song's "steamy sentiment" and "seductive" beat. Writing for the Evening Standard, Jochan Embley noted Lipa's departure from the disco-pop of Future Nostalgia, and called the song a "tantalising taste" of Lipa's future work. Mike Wass of Idolator viewed "Fever" as a "bilingual bop," and commended the "catchy" chorus and "elegant" middle ...
In its first tracking week, "Fever" received 14,000,000 streams and 9,000 digital downloads worldwide. This resulted in a debut at number 84 on the Billboard Global 200 chart dated 14 November 2020. The following week, the song reached a peak of 69, and departed the chart two weeks later. The song spent two weeks on the UK Singles Chart with a debut and peak of 79 on the chart dated 6 November 2020, and landing at number 80 in the second week. It was Lipa's 21st entry on the chart, and Angèle's
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Yellow fever begins after an incubation period of three to six days. Most cases cause only a mild infection with fever, headache, chills, back pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting.In these cases, the infection lasts only three to four days. But in 15% of cases, people enter a second, toxic phase of the disease characterized by recurring fever, this time accompanied by jaundice due to liver damage, as well as abdominal pain. Bleeding in the mouth, nose, the eyes, and the gastrointestinal tract cause vomit containing blood, hence the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro ("black vomit").There may also be kidney failure, hiccups, and delirium. Among those who develop jaundice, the fatality rate is 20 to 50%, while the overall fatality rate is about 3 to 7.5%.Severe cases may have a mortality greater than 50%. Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity,and normally results in no permanent organ damage.
Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, an enveloped RNA virus 40–50 nm in width, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae. It was the first illness shown to be transmissible by filtered human serum and transmitted by mosquitoes, by American doctor Walter Reed around 1900. The positive-sense, single-stranded RNA is around 10.862 nucleotides long and has a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural (C, prM, E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5); the enumeration corresponds to the arrangement of the protein coding genes in the genome. Minimal yellow fever virus (YFV) 3'UTR region is required for stalling of the host 5'-3' exonuclease XRN1. The UTR contains PKS3 pseudoknot structure, which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral requirement for subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) production. The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete...
After transmission from a mosquito, the viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and infect dendritic cells in particular. From there, they reach the liver and infect hepatocytes (probably indirectly via Kupffer cells), which leads to eosinophilic degradation of these cells and to the release of cytokines. Apoptotic masses known as Councilman bodies appear in the cytoplasmof hepatocytes. Fatality may occur when cytokine storm, shock, and multiple organ failurefollow.
Yellow fever is most frequently a clinical diagnosis, based on symptomatologyand travel history. Mild cases of the disease can only be confirmed virologically. Since mild cases of yellow fever can also contribute significantly to regional outbreaks, every suspected case of yellow fever (involving symptoms of fever, pain, nausea, and vomiting 6–10 days after leaving the affected area) is treated seriously. If yellow fever is suspected, the virus cannot be confirmed until 6–10 days following the illness. A direct confirmation can be obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, where the genome of the virus is amplified. Another direct approach is the isolation of the virus and its growth in cell culture using blood plasma; this can take 1–4 weeks. Serologically, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow fever or an increase in specific IgG titer (compared to an earlier sample) can confirm yellow fever....
Personal prevention of yellow fever includes vaccination and avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where yellow fever is endemic. Institutional measures for prevention of yellow fever include vaccination programmes and measures to control mosquitoes. Programmes for distribution of mosquito nets for use in homes produce reductions in cases of both malaria and yellow fever. Use of EPA-registered insect repellent is recommended when outdoors. Exposure for even a short time is enough for a potential mosquito bite. Long-sleeved clothing, long pants, and socks are useful for prevention. The application of larvicides to water-storage containers can help eliminate potential mosquito breeding sites. EPA-registered insecticide spray decreases the transmission of yellow fever. 1. Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535), or oil of lemon eucalyptuson exposed skin. 2. Wear proper clothing to reduce mosquito bites. When...
As with other Flavivirus infections, no cure is known for yellow fever. Hospitalization is advisable and intensive care may be necessary because of rapid deterioration in some cases. Certain acute treatment methods lack efficacy: passive immunization after the emergence of symptoms is probably without effect; ribavirin and other antiviral drugs, as well as treatment with interferons, are ineffective in yellow fever patients. Symptomatic treatment includes rehydration and pain relief with drugs such as paracetamol (acetaminophen). Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). However, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) are often avoided because of an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to their anticoagulant effects
Yellow fever is commonin tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Worldwide, about 600 million people live in endemic areas. The WHO estimates that 200,000 cases of disease and 30,000 deaths a year occur, but the number of officially reported cases is far lower.
The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa, with transmission of the disease from nonhuman primates to humans. The virus is thought to have originated in East or Central Africa and spread from there to West Africa. As it was endemic in Africa, local populations had developed some immunity to it. When an outbreak of yellow fever would occur in an African community where colonists resided, most Europeans died, while the indigenous Africans usually developed nonlethal sym...
Causes and transmission
Ezekiel Stone Wiggins, known as the Ottawa Prophet, proposed that the cause of a yellow fever epidemic in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1888, was astrological. In 1848, Josiah C. Nott suggested that yellow fever was spread by insects such as moths or mosquitoes, basing his ideas on the pattern of transmission of the disease. Carlos Finlay, a Cuban doctor and scientist, proposed in 1881 that yellow fever might be transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct human contact. Since the losses from yel...
Using vector control and strict vaccination programs, the urban cycle of yellow fever was nearly eradicated from South America. Since 1943, only a single urban outbreak in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, has occurred. Since the 1980s, however, the number of yellow fever cases has been increasing again, and A. aegypti has returned to the urban centers of South America. This is partly due to limitations on available insecticides, as well as habitat dislocations caused by climate change. It is...
In the hamster model of yellow fever, early administration of the antiviral ribavirin is an effective treatment of many pathological features of the disease. Ribavirin treatment during the first five days after virus infection improved survival rates, reduced tissue damage in the liver and spleen, prevented hepatocellular steatosis, and normalised levels of alanine aminotransferase, a liver damage marker. The mechanism of action of ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis C, a related virus. Because ribavirin had failed to improve survival in a virulent rhesus model of yellow fever infection, it had been previously discounted as a possible therapy. Infection was reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia. Yellow fever has been researched by several countries as a potential biological weapon.Yellow fever at CurlieFinlay CJ (2012). "The Mosquito Hypothetically Considered as the Transmitting Agent of Yellow Fever" (PDF). MEDICC Review. 14(1): 56–9."U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission." Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia"Yellow fever virus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11089.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease ...
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Q fever or query fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small-cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. Rarely, the disease is tick-borne. The incubation period is 9–40 days...
Incubation period is usually two to three weeks. The most common manifestation is flu-like symptoms with abrupt onset of fever, malaise, profuse perspiration, severe headache, muscle pain, joint pain, loss of appetite, upper respiratory problems, dry cough, pleuritic pain, chills, confusion, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. About half of infected individuals exhibit no symptoms. During its course, the disease can progress to an atypical pneumonia, which can
Diagnosis is usually based on serology rather than looking for the organism itself. Serology allows the detection of chronic infection by the appearance of high levels of the antibody against the virulent form of the bacterium. Molecular detection of bacterial DNA is increasingly used. Culture is technically difficult and not routinely available in most microbiology laboratories. Q fever can cause endocarditis which may require transoesophageal echocardiography to diagnose. Q fever hepatitis man
Protection is offered by Q-Vax, a whole-cell, inactivated vaccine developed by an Australian vaccine manufacturing company, CSL Limited. The intradermal vaccination is composed of killed C. burnetii organisms. Skin and blood tests should be done before vaccination to identify pre-existing immunity, because vaccinating people who already have an immunity can result in a severe local reaction. After a single dose of vaccine, protective immunity lasts for many years. Revaccination is not generally
Treatment of acute Q fever with antibiotics is very effective and should be given in consultation with an infectious diseases specialist. Commonly used antibiotics include doxycycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and hydroxychloroquine.Chronic Q fever is more difficult to treat and can require up to four years of treatment with doxycycline and quinolones or doxycycline with hydroxychloroquine.Q fever in pregnancy is especially difficult to treat because doxycycline a
The pathogenic agent is found worldwide, with the exception of New Zealand. The bacterium is extremely sustainable and virulent: a single organism is able to cause an infection. The common source of infection is inhalation of contaminated dust, contact with contaminated milk, meat, or wool, and particularly birthing products. Ticks can transfer the pathogenic agent to other animals. Transfer between humans seems extremely rare and has so far been described in very few cases.
- Query fever, coxiellosis
- acute, chronic
- Contact with livestock, male gender
- Infectious disease
- Signs and symptoms
Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. The disease typically develops two to four weeks after a streptococcal throat infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, multiple painful joints, involuntary muscle movements, and occasionally a characteristic non-itchy rash known as erythema marginatum. The heart is involved in about half of the cases. Damage to the heart valves, known as rheumatic heart disease, usually occurs after repeated attac
The disease typically develops two to four weeks after a throat infection. Symptoms include: fever, painful joints with those joints affected changing with time, involuntary muscle movements, and occasionally a characteristic non-itchy rash known as erythema marginatum. The heart is involved in about half of the cases. Damage to the heart valves usually occurs only after multiple attacks but may occasionally occur after a single case of RF. The damaged valves may result in heart failure and also
Rheumatic fever is a systemic disease affecting the connective tissue around arterioles, and can occur after an untreated strep throat infection, specifically due to group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes. It is believed to be caused by antibody cross-reactivity. This cross-reactivity is a type II hypersensitivity reaction and is termed molecular mimicry. Usually, self reactive B cells remain anergic in the periphery without T cell co-stimulation. During a streptococcal infection, mature
Modified Jones criteria were first published in 1944 by T. Duckett Jones, MD. They have been periodically revised by the American Heart Association in collaboration with other groups. According to revised Jones criteria, the diagnosis of rheumatic fever can be made when two of the major criteria, or one major criterion plus two minor criteria, are present along with evidence of streptococcal infection: elevated or rising antistreptolysin O titre or Anti-DNase B. A recurrent episode is also diagn
Rheumatic fever can be prevented by effectively and promptly treating strep throat with antibiotics. In those who have previously had rheumatic fever, antibiotics in a preventative manner are occasionally recommended. As of 2017 the evidence to support long term antibiotics in those with underlying disease is poor. The American Heart Association suggests that dental health be maintained, and that people with a history of bacterial endocarditis, a heart transplant, artificial heart valves, or "so
The management of rheumatic fever is directed toward the reduction of inflammation with anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin or corticosteroids. Individuals with positive cultures for strep throat should also be treated with antibiotics. Aspirin is the drug of choice and should be given at high doses. One should watch for side effects like gastritis and salicylate poisoning. In children and teenagers, the use of aspirin and aspirin-containing products can be associated with Reye's syndr
Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 American dance drama film directed by John Badham and produced by Robert Stigwood.It stars John Travolta as Tony Manero, a young Italian-American man from Brooklyn who spends his weekends dancing and drinking at a local discothèque while dealing with social tensions and general restlessness and disillusionment with his life, and feeling directionless and trapped ...
Tulip Fever is a 2017 historical romantic drama film directed by Justin Chadwick and written by Deborah Moggach and Tom Stoppard, adapted from Moggach's 1999 novel of the same name. It stars an ensemble cast featuring Alicia Vikander , Dane DeHaan , Jack O'Connell , Holliday Grainger , Tom Hollander , Matthew Morrison , Kevin McKidd , Douglas ...