Lule Sami (julevsámegiella, Norwegian: lulesamisk, Swedish: lulesamiska) is a Uralic, Sámi language spoken around the Lule River, Sweden, and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sámi is an official language.
The Sámi people (/ ˈsɑːmi /; also spelled Sami or Saami) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula within the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
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May 19, 2021 · Lule Sami (julevsámegiella, Norwegian: lulesamisk, Swedish: lulesamiska) is a Uralic, Sámi language spoken around the Lule River, Sweden, and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sámi is an official language.
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With 650 speakers, it is the second largest of all Sámi languages. It is reported that the number of native speakers is in sharp decline among the younger generations. The language has, however, been standardised in 1983 and elaborately cultivated ever since.
Some analyses of Lule Sámi phonology may include preaspirated stops and affricates (/hp/, /ht/, /ht͡s/, /ht͡ʃ/, /hk/) and pre-stopped or pre-glottalised nasals (voiceless /pm/, /tn/, /tɲ/, /kŋ/ and voiced /bːm/, /dːn/, /dːɲ/, /gːŋ/). However, these can be treated as clusters for the purpose of phonology, since they are clearly composed of two segments and only the first of these lengthens in quantity 3. The terms "preaspirated" and "pre-stopped" will be used in this articl...
Lule Sámi possesses the following vowels: 1. /ea̯/ can be realised as a true diphthong, or a long monophtong [ɛː]. 2. Long /eː/ and the diphthongs /ea̯/ and /oɑ̯/occur only in stressed syllables. 3. Long /iː/ and /uː/ are very rare, as is short /e/. They also only occur in stressed syllables. 4. Short /o/ and long /oː/ can occur in unstressed syllables, but only when a preceding stressed syllable contains /o/.
Sammallahtidivides Lule Sámi dialects as follows: 1. Northern dialects: Sörkaitum, Sirkas and Jåkkåkaska in Sweden, Tysfjordin Norway 2. Southern dialects: Tuorpon in Sweden 3. Forest dialects: Gällivareand Serri in Sweden Features of the northern dialects of Lule Sámi are: 1. Long /aː/ is also rounded to /oː/ after /o/in a first syllable. Features of the southern dialects of Lule Sámi are: 1. Umlaut of short /a/ to /e/ before /i/.
The orthography used for Lule Sámi is written using an extended form of the Latin script. Traditionally, the character n-acute (Ń/ń) has been used to represent the [ŋ] sound, found, for example, in the English word "song". In place of n-acute (available in Unicode and mechanical type writers, but not in Latin-1 or traditional Nordic keyboards), many have used ñ or even ng. In modern orthography, such as in the official publications of the Swedish government and the recently published translation of the New Testament, it is usually replaced with ŋ, in accordance with the orthography of many other Sámi languages.
Lule Sámi has seven cases:
The personal pronouns have three numbers - singular, plural and dual. The following table contains personal pronouns in the nominative and genitive/accusative cases. The next table demonstrates the declension of a personal pronoun he/she(no gender distinction) in various cases:Grundström, Harald: Lulelappisches WörterbuchKintel, Anders 1991: Syntaks og ordavledninger i lulesamisk. Kautokeino : Samisk utdanningsråd.Spiik, Nils-Erik 1989: Lulesamisk grammatik. Jokkmokk: Sameskolstyrelsen. ISBN 91-7716-019-3Wiklund, K.B. 1890: Lule-lappisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 1
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lule Sami language. The main article for this category is Lule Sámi.
- Geographic distribution
- Written languages and sociolinguistic situation
Sámi languages, in English also rendered as Sami and Saami, are a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sámi people in Northern Europe. There are, depending on the nature and terms of division, ten or more Sami languages. Several spellings have been used for the Sámi languages, including Sámi, Sami, Saami, Saame, Sámic, Samic and Saamic, as well as the exonyms Lappish and Lappic. The last two, along with the term Lapp, are now often considered pejorative.
The Sámi languages form a branch of the Uralic language family. According to the traditional view, Sámi is within the Uralic family most closely related to the Finnic languages. However, this view has recently been doubted by some scholars, who argue that the traditional view of a common Finno-Sami protolanguage is not as strongly supported as had been earlier assumed, and that the similarities may stem from an areal influence on Samic from Finnic. In terms of internal relationships, the ...
The Sami languages are spoken in Sápmi in Northern Europe, in a region stretching over the four countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, reaching from the southern part of central Scandinavia in the southwest to the tip of the Kola Peninsula in the east. The borders between the languages do not align with the ones separating the region's modern nation states. During the Middle Ages and early modern period, now-extinct Sami languages were also spoken in the central and southern parts ...
The Proto-Samic language is believed to have formed in the vicinity of the Gulf of Finland between 1000 BC to 700 AD, deriving from a common Proto-Sami-Finnic language. However, reconstruction of any basic proto-languages in the Uralic family have reached a level close to or identical to Proto-Uralic. According to the comparative linguist Ante Aikio, the Proto-Samic language developed in South Finland or in Karelia around 2000–2500 years ago, spreading then to northern Fennoscandia. The ...
At present there are nine living Sami languages. The largest six of the languages have independent literary languages; the three others have no written standard, and of them, there are only a few, mainly elderly, speakers left. The ISO 639-2 code for all Sami languages without their own code is "smi". The seven written languages are: 1. Northern Sami: With an estimated 15,000 speakers, this accounts for probably more than 75% of all Sami speakers in 2002. ISO 639-1/ISO 639-2: se/sme 2. Lule Sami
Most Sami languages use Latin alphabets, with these respective additional letters. Northern Sami: Áá Čč Đđ Ŋŋ Šš Ŧŧ Žž Inari Sami: Áá Ââ Ää Čč Đđ Ŋŋ Šš Žž Skolt Sami: Ââ Čč Ʒʒ Ǯǯ Đđ Ǧǧ Ǥǥ Ǩǩ Ŋŋ Õõ Šš Žž Åå Ää Lule Sami in Sweden: Áá Åå Ŋŋ Ää Lule Sami in Norway: Áá Åå Ŋŋ Ææ Southern Sami in Sweden: Ïï Ää Öö Åå Southern Sami in Norway: Ïï Ææ Øø Åå Ume Sami: Áá Đđ Ïï Ŋŋ Ŧŧ Üü Åå Ää Öö
Like Southern Sámi, Lule Sámi follows the principle of using the majority language of the particular country it's being written in as the basis for its orthography and thus has two separate versions: the Norwegian standard and the Swedish standard. The standard orthography for Lule Sami was approved in 1983.
Lule people, an indigenous people of northern Argentina; Lule language, a possibly extinct language of Argentina; Lule Sami language, a language spoken in Sweden and Norway; Luleå, also known as Lule, a town in Sweden; Lule River in Sweden; Yusuf Lule (1912–1985), former president of Uganda; Lule Warrenton 1862–1932), American actress ...
- Genetic relations
Lule is an indigenous language of northern Argentina. Lule may be extinct today. Campbell writes that in 1981 there was an unconfirmed report that Lule is still spoken by 5 families in Resistencia in east-central Chaco Province. It is unclear if it is the same language as Tonocoté.
Unattested varieties classified by Loukotka as part of the Lule language cluster. 1. Tonocoté - once spoken on the Bermejo River near Concepción, Chaco. 2. Isistiné - once spoken on the Salado River near San Juan de Valbuena, Chaco. 3. Oristine - once spoken on the Salado River near San Juan de Valbuena, Chaco. 4. Toquistiné - once spoken on the Salado River near Miraflores. 5. Matará / Amulahí - once spoken near the city of the same name on the Salado River. 6. Jurí - extinct ...
Lule appears to be distantly related to the still-spoken Vilela language, together forming a small Lule–Vilela family. Kaufman finds this relationship likely and with general agreement among the major classifiers of South American languages. Viegas Barros published additional evidence 1996–2006. Zamponi and other authors consider Lule and Vilela two linguistic isolates.
In 1586 Father Alonson Bárzana wrote a grammar of Tonocote, which is now lost. In 1732 Antonio Maccioni, who was not aware of Bárzana's grammar, wrote one of his own, Arte y vocabulario de la lengua lule y tonocoté of the Lule-Tonocote language at the mission San Esteban de Miraflores. This is our primary data on the language. Métraux concluded that Lule and Tonocote were distinct, and perhaps unrelated, languages, and that the Tonocote at the Miraflores mission had shifted to the Lule ...