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  2. Mammal - Wikipedia › wiki › Mammal

    Many traits shared by all living mammals appeared among the earliest members of the group: Jaw joint – The dentary (the lower jaw bone, which carries the teeth) and the squamosal (a small cranial bone) meet to... Middle ear – In crown-group mammals, sound is carried from the eardrum by a chain of ...

  3. Mammal - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Mammal

    Mammalia (bear live young; milk; raise their young etc.) Amphibia (lay eggs in water) Amniota (lay cleidoic eggs ) Sauropsida (all true ' reptiles ') Synapsida (all ' mammal-like amniotes... Sauropsida (all true ' reptiles ') Synapsida (all ' mammal-like amniotes ') Pelycosauria Therapsida (in ...

  4. List of mammal genera - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_mammal_genera

    Cetartiodactyla is a large order of hoofed mammals, the even-toed ungulates, and aquatic mammals, cetaceans. Cetacea was found to be nested within "Artiodactlya" and has now been moved into that order, whose name is now Cetartiodactyla [2] Even-toed ungulates are found nearly world-wide, although no species are native to Australia or Antarctica.

  5. Marine mammal - Wikipedia › wiki › Marine_mammal

    Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence. They include animals such as seals , whales , manatees , sea otters and polar bears . They are an informal group, unified only by their reliance on marine environments for feeding and survival.

  6. Evolution of mammals - Wikipedia › wiki › Evolution_of_mammals

    Mammals are metagenomic, in that they are composed of not only their own genes, but also those of all of their associated microbes. Gut microbiota has co-diversified as mammalian species have evolved. Recent studies indicate that adaptive divergence between mammalian species is shaped in part by changes in the gut microbiota.

  7. Mammal (band) - Wikipedia › wiki › Mammal_(band)
    • Overview
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    Mammal are an Australian band that formed in March 2006. Mammal rose up the ranks of the Australian music scene very quickly. Their first self-titled EP was recorded soon after the band came together. Their debut live album "Vol:1 The Aural Underground" was recorded just 4 months after the band started touring at a sold out show at The Evelyn Hotel on 2 February 2007. Mammal also released a single titled "Slaves/Nagasaki in Flames" AA side, featuring 3 songs. Mammal entered the studio on 21 Apri

    Ezekiel Ox - Vocals Pete Williamson - Guitar Nick Adams - Bass Guitar Zane Rosanoski - Drums/Percussion

    Mammal Vol 1: The Aural Underground The Majority Vol 2: Systematic/Automatic

    "Slaves/Nagasaki in Flames" "Smash the Piñata" "The Majority" "Community" "Dead"

    • 2006–2009, 2017 – present
    • Ezekiel Ox, Pete Williamson, Nick Adams, Zane Rosanoski
  8. Mammal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Mammal
    • Varying Definitions, Varying Dates
    • Distinguishing Features
    • Classification
    • Evolutionary History
    • Physiology
    • Hybrid Mammals
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes (echidnas and platypuses) and therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) and all descendants of that ancestor.[3] Since this ancestor lived in the Jurassic period, Rowe's definition excludes all animals from the earlier Triassic, despite the fact that Triassic fossils in the Haramiyida have been referred to the Mammalia since the mid-19th century.[4] T. S. Kemp has provided a more traditional definition: "synapsids that possess a dentary–squamosal jaw articulation and occlusion between upper and lower molars with a transverse component to the movement" or, equivalently in Kemp's view, the clade originating with the last common ancestor of Sinoconodon and living mammals.[5] If Mammalia is considered as the crown group, its origin can be roughly dated as the first known appearance of animals more closely...

    Living mammal species can be identified by the presence of sweat glands, including those that are specialized to produce milkto nourish their young. In classifying fossils, however, other features must be used, since soft tissue glands and many other features are not visible in fossils. Many traits shared by all living mammals appeared among the earliest members of the group: 1. Jaw joint - The dentary (the lower jaw bone which carries the teeth) and the squamosal (a small cranial bone) meet to form the joint. In most gnathostomes, including early therapsids, the joint consists of the articular (a small bone at the back of the lower jaw) and the quadrate(a small bone at the back of the upper jaw). 2. Middle ear - In crown-group mammals, sound is carried from the eardrum by a chain of three bones, the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. Ancestrally, the malleus and the incus are derived from the articular and the quadrate bones that constituted the jaw joint of early therapsids. 3. T...

    George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" (AMNH Bulletin v. 85, 1945) was the original source for the taxonomy listed here. Simpson laid out a systematics of mammal origins and relationships that was universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, and the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself, partly through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work gradually made Simpson's classification outdated, it remained the closest thing to an official classification of mammals.

    Synapsida, the group which contains mammals and their extinct relatives, originated during the Pennsylvanian subperiod, when they split from the lineage that led to reptiles and birds. Crown group mammals evolved from earlier mammaliaforms during the Early Jurassic. Cladogram following,[14]which takes Mammalia to be the crown group. A cladogram compiled by Mikko Haaramo and based on individual cladograms of After Rowe 1988; Luo, Crompton & Sun 2001; Luo, Cifelli & Kielan-Jaworowska 2001, Luo, Kielan-Jaworowska & Cifelli 2002, Kielan-Jaworowska, Cifelli & Luo 2004, and Luo & Wible 2005.[15]


    Nearly all mammals are endothermic ("warm-blooded"). Most mammals also have hair to help keep them warm. Like birds, mammals can forage or hunt in weather and climates too cold for nonavian reptiles and large insects. Endothermy requires plenty of food energy, so mammals eat more food per unit of body weight than most reptiles. Small insectivorous mammals eat prodigious amounts for their size. A rare exception, the naked mole-rat, produces little metabolic heat, so it is considered an operati...


    In intelligent mammals, such as primates, the cerebrum is larger relative to the rest of the brain. Intelligence itself is not easy to define, but indications of intelligence include the ability to learn, matched with behavioral flexibility. Rats, for example, are considered to be highly intelligent, as they can learn and perform new tasks, an ability that may be important when they first colonize a fresh habitat. In some mammals, food gathering appears to be related to intelligence: a deer f...


    Mammals evolved from four-legged ancestors. They use their limbs to walk, climb, swim, or fly. Some land mammals have toes that produce claws for climbing or hoovesfor running. Aquatic mammals like whales and dolphins have flippers which evolved from legs. Terrestrial Arboreal Aquatic Whales and dolphins propel themselves through the water by moving their tail flukes up and down, adjusting the angle of the flukes as needed. The more massive front of the body contributes stability.[56][57] Aerial

    The deliberate or accidental hybridising of two or more species of closely related animals through captive breeding is a human activity which has been in existence for millennia and has grown in recent times for economic purposes. The number of successful interspecific mammalian hybrids is relatively small, although it has come to be known that there is a significant number of naturally occurring hybrids between forms or regional varieties of a single species.[citation needed] These may form zones of gradation known as clines. Indeed the distinction between some hitherto distinct species can become clouded once it can be shown that they may not only breed but produce fertile offspring. Some hybrid animals exhibit greater strength and resilience than either parent. This is known as hybrid vigor. The existence of the mule (donkey sire; horse dam) being used widely as a hardy draught animal throughout ancient and modern history is testament to this. Other well known examples are the li...

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    McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
    Nowak, Ronald M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1936 pp. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9

    Template:TaxonIds 1. BBC Wildlife Finder – video clips from the BBC's natural history archive 2. – All species in the world with distribution maps and images 3. Paleocene Mammals, a site covering the rise of the mammals, 4. Evolution of Mammals, a brief introduction to early mammals, 5. Tree of Life poster– Shows mammals' evolutionary relation to other organisms, 6. High-Resolution Images of various Mammalian Brains, 7. Mammal Species, collection of information sheets about various mammal species, 8. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive, 9. European Mammal Atlas EMMAfrom Societas Europaea Mammalogica, 10. Marine Mammals of the World—An overview of all marine mammals, including descriptions, multimedia and a key, 11. Mammalogy.orgThe American Society of Mammalogists was established in 1919 for the purpose of promoting the study of mammals,...

  9. Mammal - Wikipedia › wiki › Mammal

    Mammals ek rakam ke vertebrate janwar hae. Mammal bachchaa paida kae hae aur warm-blooded rahe hae. Images. Polar bear. Bat. Camel. Manatee. References. Ii panna ke 6 ...

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