Nazism emphasised German nationalism, including both irredentism and expansionism. Nazism held racial theories based upon a belief in the existence of an Aryan master race that was superior to all other races. The Nazis emphasised the existence of racial conflict between the Aryan race and others—particularly Jews, whom the Nazis viewed as a ...
Nazi Germany, officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was the German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country which they transformed into a dictatorship.
- Nazi Rise to Power
- Attacking Other Countries
- The Holocaust
- Victory of The Allies
- Nuremberg Trials
- Nazis After The War
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Adolf Hitler, the leader of Nazi Germany, wrote a book called Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). The book said that all of Germany's problems happened because Jews were making plans to hurt the country. He also said that Jewish and communist politicians planned the Armistice of 1918 that ended World War I, and allowed Germany to agree to pay huge amounts of money and goods (reparations). On the night of the 27 February 1933 and 28 February 1933, someone set the Reichstag building on fire. This was the building where the German Parliament held their meetings. The Nazis blamed the communists. Opponents of the Nazis said that the Nazis themselves had done it to come to power. On the very same day, an emergency law called Reichstagsbrandverordnung was passed. The government claimed it was to protect the state from people trying to hurt the country. With this law, most of the civil rights of the Weimar Republic did not count any longer. The Nazis used this against the other political parties. M...
As the German leader (Führer) of Nazi Germany, Hitler began moving Nazi armies into neighboring countries. When Germany attacked Poland, World War II started. Western countries like France, Belgium, and the Netherlands were occupied and to be treated by Germany as colonies. However, in Eastern countries, such as Poland and the Soviet Union, the Nazis planned to kill or enslave the Slavic peoples, so that German settlers could take their land. The Nazis made alliances with other European countries, such as Finland and Italy. Every other European country that allied with Germany did it because they did not want to be taken over by Germany. Through these alliances and invasions, the Nazis managed to control much of Europe.
In the Holocaust, millions of Jews, as well as Roma people (also called "Gypsies"), people with disabilities, homosexuals, political opponents, and many other people were sent to concentration camps and death camps in Poland and Germany. The Nazis killed millions of these people at the concentration camps with poison gas. The Nazis also killed millions of people in these groups by forcing them to do slave laborwithout giving them much food or clothing. In total, 17 million people died, 6 million of them being Jews.
In 1945, the Soviet Union took over Berlin after beating the German army in Russia. The Soviet Red Army met the American and British armies, who had fought right across Germany after invading Nazi Europe from Normandy in France on June 6,1944. The Nazis lost because the Allieshad many more soldiers and more money than them. During the invasion of Berlin, Hitler may have shot himself in a bunker with his new wife, Eva Braun. Other Nazis also killed themselves, including Joseph Goebbels just one day after Hitler named him as his successor. The Nazis surrenderedafter the Red Army captured Berlin.
After the war, the Allied governments, namely the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, held trials of the Nazi leaders. These trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany. For this reason, these trials were called "the Nuremberg Trials." The Allied leaders accused the Nazi leaders of war crimes and crimes against humanity, including murdering millions of people (in the Holocaust), of starting wars, of conspiracy, and belonging to illegal organizations like the SS (called, "Schutzstaffel", in German). Most Nazi leaders were found guilty by the court, and they were sent to jail or sentenced to death and executed.
There has not been a Nazi state since 1945, but there are still people who believe in those ideas. These people are often called neo-Nazis. Here are some examples of modern Nazi ideas: 1. Germanic peoplesare superior to all other races of people. 2. Many neo-nazis change "germanic" to "all white people". 3. They speak against Jews and sometimes other races. For example: 3.1. They say that the Holocaust did not happen, and that it was made up by the Jews. 3.2. They say that Hitler was right to blame Jewish people for Germany's problems after World War I; 3.3. They tell people to hateJewish people and other groups of people. 3.4. They believe that Jews have too much power in the world. After the war, laws were made in Germany and other countries, especially countries in Europe, that make it illegal to say the Holocaust never happened. Sometimes they also ban questioning the number of people affected by it, which is saying that not so many people were killed as most people think who wr...
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Nazism in the Americas has existed since the 1930s and still exists today. The membership of the earliest groups reflected the sympathies of some German-Americans and German Latin-Americans toward Nazi Germany, embracing the National Socialist spirit in Europe and establishing it within the Americas. Throughout the inter-war period and the outbreak of World War II, American Nazi parties engaged in activities such as sporting Nazi propaganda, storming newspapers, spreading Nazi-sympathetic materi
Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. German-Americans for years attempted to create pro-Nazi movements in the U.S., often bearing swastikas and wearing uniforms. These groups had little to do with Nazi Germany and lacked support from the wider German-Ame
The Friends of New Germany dissolved in the 1930s. The German American Bund, led by Fritz Kuhn, formed in 1935 and lasted until America formally entered World War II in 1941. The Bund existed with the goal of a united National Socialist German America. It proclaimed communism as
The Office of Special Investigations estimated around ten thousand Nazi war criminals entered the United States from Eastern Europe after the conclusion of World War II. Some were brought in Operation Paperclip, a project to bring German scientists and engineers to the U.S. Most
The National Socialist Movement of Chile, or el nacismo, formed in 1932. It was founded by Jorge Gonzalez von Marees, Carlos Keller Rueff, Juan de Dios Valenzuela and Gustavo Vargas Molinare. The members were referred to as Nacistas and the party had a pyramid-structured hierarch
Some South American countries were opposed to the Axis powers and Nazism in Europe, especially after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941. Others maintained that continuing economic relations with countries on both sides of the war would be beneficial. German, Italian, and Spanish
After World War II ended, many Nazis and other fascists fled to South America through the use of ratlines. Many of these ratlines were supported by the Catholic Church. The first movements to smuggle Nazis and fascists came in 1946 when two Argentinian bishops colluded with a Fre
- Nazism as Political Religion
- Religious Beliefs of Leading Nazis
- Thule Society and The Origins of The Nazi Party
- Heinrich Himmler and The SS
- See Also
- External Links
Among the writers who alluded before 1980 to the religious aspects of Nazism are Aurel Kolnai, Raymond Aron, Albert Camus, Romano Guardini, Denis de Rougemont, Eric Voegelin, George Mosse, Klaus Vondung and Friedrich Heer. Voegelin's work on political religion was first published in German in 1938. Emilio Gentile and Roger Griffin, among others, have drawn on his concept.The French author and philosopher Albert Camus is mentioned here, since he has made some remarks about Nazism as a religion and about Adolf Hitler in particular in L'Homme révolté. Outside a purely academic discourse, public interest mainly concerns the relationship between Nazism and Occultism, and between Nazism and Christianity. The interest in the first relationship is obvious from the modern popular theory of Nazi occultism. The persistent idea that the Nazis were directed by occult agencies has been dismissed by historians as modern cryptohistory. The interest in the second relationship is obvious from the deb...
Within a large movement like Nazism, it may not be especially shocking to discover that individuals could embrace different ideological systems that would seem to be polar opposites. The religious beliefs of even the leading Nazis diverged strongly. The difficulty for historians lies in the task of evaluating not only the public, but also the private statements of the Nazi politicians. Steigmann-Gall, who intended to do this in his study, points to such people as Erich Koch (who was not only Gauleiter of East Prussia and Reichskomissar for the Ukraine, but also the elected praeses of the East Prussian provincial synod of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union) and Bernhard Rustas examples of Nazi politicians who also professed to be Christian in private.
The Thule Society, which is remotely connected to the origins of the Nazi Party, was one of the ariosophic groups of the late 1910s. Thule Gesellschaft had initially been the name of the Munich branch of the Germanenorden Walvater of the Holy Grail, a lodge-based organisation which was built up by Rudolf von Sebottendorff in 1917. For this task he had received about a hundred addresses of potential members in Bavaria from Hermann Pohl, and from 1918 he was also supported by Walter Nauhaus. According to an account by Sebottendorff, the Bavarian province of the Germanenorden Walvater had 200 members in spring 1918, which had risen to 1500 in autumn 1918, of these 250 in Munich. Five rooms, capable of accommodating 300 people, were leased from the fashionable Hotel Vierjahreszeiten ('Four Seasons') in Munich and decorated with the Thule emblem showing a dagger superimposed on a swastika. Since the lodge's ceremonial activities were accompanied by overtly right-wing meetings, the name T...
Credited retrospectively with being the founder of "Esoteric Hitlerism", and certainly a figure of major importance for the officially sanctioned research and practice of mysticism by a Nazi elite, was Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler who, more than any other high official in the Third Reich (including Hitler) was fascinated by pan-Aryan (i.e., broader than Germanic) racialism. Himmler's capacity for rational planning was accompanied by an "enthusiasm for the utopian, the romantic and even the occult." It also seems that Himmler had an interest in astrology. He consulted the astrologer Wilhelm Wulff in the last weeks of the Second World War. (One detailed but difficult source for this is a book written by Wulff himself, Tierkreis und Hakenkreuz, published in Germany in 1968. That Walter Schellenberg had discovered an astrologer called Wulf is mentioned in Hugh Trevor-Roper's The Last Days of Hitler.) In Bramwell's assessment: "Too much can be made of the importance of bizarre cultis...Anna Bramwell. 1985. Blood and Soil: Richard Walther Darré and Hitler's 'Green Party'. Abbotsbrook, England: The Kensal Press. ISBN 0-946041-33-4.Carrie B. Dohe. Race and Religion in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge, 2016. ISBN 978-1138888401Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. 1985. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890-1935. Wellingborough, England: The...———. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4)Faith And Thought in Nazi Germany - Kolnai, Aurel, The War Against the WestNationalsozialismus und Okkultismus? Die Thule-Gesellschaft (in German) Article on an information page from the Swiss Reformed Church
Nazism. Nazism ( Nationalsozialismus, Naitional Socialism; alternatively spelled Naziism was the ideology an practice o the Nazi Party an o Nazi Germany. It wis a unique variety o fascism that involved biological racism an antisemitism. Nazism presented itself as politically syncretic, incorporating policies, tactics an philosophies frae right ...
The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Neo-Nazism is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including antisemitism, ultranationalism, racism, xenophobia, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, anti-communism, and creating a " Fourth Reich ".
- Nazi propaganda in Brazil
- German community in Brazil
- Nazis in Brazil after the war
- Neo-nazism in Brazil
Nazism in Brazil began even before World War II, when the National Socialist German Workers' Party made political propaganda in the country to attract militants among the members of the German community. Germans began emigrating to Brazil around 1824. In the 1920s and 1930s another major wave of German immigrants began arriving in Brazil again in the tens of thousands due to the socioeconomic problems faced by Weimar Republic Germany in post World War I. It was this new wave of German immigratio
In 1928, the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party was founded in Timbó, Santa Catarina. Approximately a hundred thousand born Germans and one million descendants lived in Brazil at that time. Most of those lived in isolated communities in southern Brazil that preserved the German language and culture. With Adolf Hitler's rise to the Chancellor's office in Germany, German-Brazilians began to be sent propaganda from German Nazism to attract followers abroad. Although there has never been a ...
Before 1930, there were two flows of German immigration into Brazil. The first flow occurred in the nineteenth century, which gave rise to several colonies scattered throughout Brazil, but concentrated in the South. At the time of the rise of Nazism in Germany, this community was already largely made up of the second and third generation in Brazil. This community maintained diverse German cultural habits, however the geographic distance and the passage of time brought about perceptible cultural
After Germany's defeat in World War II, many Nazis who were sought by the Allies as suspected war criminals fled to Brazil and hid among the German-Brazilian communities. The most famous case was Josef Mengele, a doctor who became known as the "Angel of Death" at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Mengele performed medical experiments with living humans, always without anaesthesia, for the purpose of researching the perfection of the Aryan race. A good part of the victims of their "scientific exp
Currently in Brazil there are some neo-Nazi groups in action. However, there is often an association between these groups and the descendants of Southern Germans. Historian Rafael Athaides asserts there is no justification for making such a connection. Athaides finds it unlikely that there will be any connection, since a survey of the profiles of the individuals arrested for neo-Nazism shows that none of them are descendants of historical Nazis. These are typically young people who are misfits,