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  1. The Peace of Westphalia ( German: Westfälischer Friede, pronounced [vɛstˈfɛːlɪʃɐ ˈfʁiːdə] ( listen)) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), and brought peace to the ...

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      The origins of Westphalian sovereignty have been traced in...

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      Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburg Emperor...

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      The peace negotiations had no exact beginning or end,...

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      Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement. 1....

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      The power asserted by Ferdinand III was stripped from him...

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    The peace negotiations were held in the cities of Münster and Osnabrück, which lie about 50 km apart from each other, in the present day German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Sweden had favoured Osnabrück due to its Protestant background, France chose Münster due to its Catholic background. In any case two locations were required because Protestant and Catholicleaders refused to meet each other. The Catholics used Münster, while the Protestants used Osnabrück.

    Spain accepted the independence of the Dutch Republic. The power which Ferdinand III had taken for himself against the Holy Roman Empire's constitution was stripped. That meant that the rulers of the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands. 1. All parties would now recognize the Peace of Augsburgof 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. 2. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was notthe established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. There were also territorial adjustments.

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    Peace ne­go­ti­a­tions be­tween France and the Hab­s­burgs began in Cologne in 1641. These ne­go­ti­a­tions were ini­tially blocked by Car­di­nal Riche­lieu of France, who in­sisted on the in­clu­sion of all his al­lies, whether fully sov­er­eign coun­tries or states within the Holy Roman Em­pire. In Ham­burg and Lübeck, Swe­den and the Holy Roman Em­pire ne­go­ti­ated the Treaty of Ham­burg with the in­ter­ven­tion of Richelieu.The Holy Roman Em­pire and Swe­den de­clared the prepa­ra­tions of Cologne and the Treaty of Ham­burg to be pre­lim­i­nar­ies of an over­all peace agree­ment. The main peace ne­go­ti­a­tions took place in West­phalia, in the neigh­bor­ing cities of Münster and Os­nabrück. Both cities were main­tained as neu­tral and de­mil­i­ta­rized zones for the ne­go­ti­a­tions. In Münster, ne­go­ti­a­tions took place be­tween the Holy Roman Em­pire and France, as well as be­tween the Dutch Re­pub­lic and Spain. Münster had been, since its re-Catholi­ci­sa­tion in 1535, a...

    The peace ne­go­ti­a­tions had no exact be­gin­ning and end­ing, be­cause the 109 del­e­ga­tions never met in a ple­nary ses­sion. In­stead, var­i­ous del­e­ga­tions ar­rived be­tween 1643 and 1646 and left be­tween 1647 and 1649. The largest num­ber of diplo­mats were pre­sent be­tween Jan­u­ary 1646 and July 1647. Del­e­ga­tions had been sent by 16 Eu­ro­pean states, 66 Im­pe­r­ial Statesrep­re­sent­ing the in­ter­ests of 140 Im­pe­r­ial States, and 27 in­ter­est groups rep­re­sent­ing 38 groups. 1. The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. 2. The Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius. 3. The Imperial delegation was headed by Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. His aides were: 3.1. In Münster, Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamarand Isaak Volmar. 3.2. In Osnabrück, Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and ReichshofratJohann K...

    Three sep­a­rate treaties con­sti­tuted the peace set­tle­ment. 1. The Peace of Münsterwas signed by the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, and was ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648. 2. Two complementary treaties were signed on 24 October 1648: 2.1. The Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis, IPM),between the Holy Roman Emperor and France, along with their respective allies 2.2. The Treaty of Osnabrück (Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO), between the Holy Roman Empireand Sweden, along with their respective allies.

    Internal political boundaries

    The power as­serted by Fer­di­nand III was stripped from him and re­turned to the rulers of the Im­pe­r­ial States. The rulers of the Im­pe­r­ial States could hence­forth choose their own of­fi­cial re­li­gions. Catholics and Protes­tants were re­de­fined as equal be­fore the law, and Calvin­ism was given legal recog­ni­tion as an of­fi­cial religion.The in­de­pen­dence of the Dutch Re­pub­lic, which prac­ticed re­li­gious tol­er­a­tion, also pro­vided a safe haven for Eu­ro­pean Jews. The Ho...


    The main tenets of the Peace of West­phalia were: 1. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). The options were Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. 2. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was notthe established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in private, as well as in public during allotted...

    Territorial adjustments

    1. The Old Swiss Confederacy was formally recognised as independent from the Holy Roman Empire, after decades of de factoindependence. 2. The Dutch Republic, which had declared its independence from Spain in 1581, was formally recognised as a fully independent state from both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. 3. France retained the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun near Lorraine, received the cities of the Décapole in Alsace (except for Strasbourg, the Bishopric of Strasbourg, and Mulhouse)...

    The treaties did not en­tirely end con­flicts aris­ing out of the Thirty Years' War. Fight­ing con­tin­ued be­tween France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyre­nees in 1659. The Dutch-Por­tuguese War had begun dur­ing the Iber­ian Union be­tween Spain and Por­tu­gal, as part of the Eighty Years' War, and went on until 1663. Nev­er­the­less, the Peace of West­phalia did set­tle many out­stand­ing Eu­ro­pean is­sues of the time.

    Croxton, Derek, and Anuschka Tischer. The Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary(Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
    Croxton, Derek (1999). "The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty". International History Review. 21 (3): 569–591. doi:10.1080/07075332.1999.9640869.
    Mowat, R. B. History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789 (1928) pp 104–14 online
    Schmidt, Sebastian (2011). "To Order the Minds of Scholars: The Discourse of the Peace of Westphalia in International Relations Literature1". International Studies Quarterly. 55 (3): 601–623. doi:1...
  3. Talk:Peace of Westphalia. A fact from this article was featured on Wikipedia's Main Page in the On this day section on October 24, 2004, October 24, 2005, October 24, 2006, October 24, 2007, October 24, 2008, October 24, 2009, October 24, 2014, and October 24, 2018. Peace of Westphalia has been listed as a level-4 vital article in History.

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    Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, but most of it remained divided by duchies and other areas of feudal power. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years' War.

    • 20,210 km² (7,803 sq mi)
    • Germany
  5. The Kingdom of Westphalia was created in 1807 by merging territories ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia in the Peace of Tilsit, among them the region of the Duchy of Magdeburg west of the Elbe River, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories of Hanover and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the Electorate of Hesse.

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