The Peace of Westphalia ( German: Westfälischer Friede, pronounced [vɛstˈfɛːlɪʃɐ ˈfʁiːdə] ( listen)) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), and brought peace to the ...
- Westphalian Sovereignty
The origins of Westphalian sovereignty have been traced in...
Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburg Emperor...
The peace negotiations had no exact beginning or end,...
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The peace negotiations were held in the cities of Münster and Osnabrück, which lie about 50 km apart from each other, in the present day German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Sweden had favoured Osnabrück due to its Protestant background, France chose Münster due to its Catholic background. In any case two locations were required because Protestant and Catholicleaders refused to meet each other. The Catholics used Münster, while the Protestants used Osnabrück.
Spain accepted the independence of the Dutch Republic. The power which Ferdinand III had taken for himself against the Holy Roman Empire's constitution was stripped. That meant that the rulers of the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands. 1. All parties would now recognize the Peace of Augsburgof 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. 2. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was notthe established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. There were also territorial adjustments.Treaty Text Archived 2006-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
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Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in Cologne in 1641. These negotiations were initially blocked by Cardinal Richelieu of France, who insisted on the inclusion of all his allies, whether fully sovereign countries or states within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg with the intervention of Richelieu.The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. The main peace negotiations took place in Westphalia, in the neighboring cities of Münster and Osnabrück. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. In Münster, negotiations took place between the Holy Roman Empire and France, as well as between the Dutch Republic and Spain. Münster had been, since its re-Catholicisation in 1535, a...
The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the 109 delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649. The largest number of diplomats were present between January 1646 and July 1647. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, 66 Imperial Statesrepresenting the interests of 140 Imperial States, and 27 interest groups representing 38 groups. 1. The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. 2. The Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius. 3. The Imperial delegation was headed by Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. His aides were: 3.1. In Münster, Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamarand Isaak Volmar. 3.2. In Osnabrück, Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and ReichshofratJohann K...
Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement. 1. The Peace of Münsterwas signed by the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, and was ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648. 2. Two complementary treaties were signed on 24 October 1648: 2.1. The Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis, IPM),between the Holy Roman Emperor and France, along with their respective allies 2.2. The Treaty of Osnabrück (Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO), between the Holy Roman Empireand Sweden, along with their respective allies.
Internal political boundaries
The power asserted by Ferdinand III was stripped from him and returned to the rulers of the Imperial States. The rulers of the Imperial States could henceforth choose their own official religions. Catholics and Protestants were redefined as equal before the law, and Calvinism was given legal recognition as an official religion.The independence of the Dutch Republic, which practiced religious toleration, also provided a safe haven for European Jews. The Ho...
The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were: 1. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). The options were Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. 2. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was notthe established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in private, as well as in public during allotted...
1. The Old Swiss Confederacy was formally recognised as independent from the Holy Roman Empire, after decades of de factoindependence. 2. The Dutch Republic, which had declared its independence from Spain in 1581, was formally recognised as a fully independent state from both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. 3. France retained the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun near Lorraine, received the cities of the Décapole in Alsace (except for Strasbourg, the Bishopric of Strasbourg, and Mulhouse)...
The treaties did not entirely end conflicts arising out of the Thirty Years' War. Fighting continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. The Dutch-Portuguese War had begun during the Iberian Union between Spain and Portugal, as part of the Eighty Years' War, and went on until 1663. Nevertheless, the Peace of Westphalia did settle many outstanding European issues of the time.Croxton, Derek, and Anuschka Tischer. The Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary(Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).Croxton, Derek (1999). "The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty". International History Review. 21 (3): 569–591. doi:10.1080/07075332.1999.9640869.Mowat, R. B. History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789 (1928) pp 104–14 onlineSchmidt, Sebastian (2011). "To Order the Minds of Scholars: The Discourse of the Peace of Westphalia in International Relations Literature1". International Studies Quarterly. 55 (3): 601–623. doi:1...
Talk:Peace of Westphalia. A fact from this article was featured on Wikipedia's Main Page in the On this day section on October 24, 2004, October 24, 2005, October 24, 2006, October 24, 2007, October 24, 2008, October 24, 2009, October 24, 2014, and October 24, 2018. Peace of Westphalia has been listed as a level-4 vital article in History.
Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, but most of it remained divided by duchies and other areas of feudal power. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years' War.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was created in 1807 by merging territories ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia in the Peace of Tilsit, among them the region of the Duchy of Magdeburg west of the Elbe River, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories of Hanover and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the Electorate of Hesse.