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Simplified Chinese characters ( 简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters used in Mainland China, Malaysia, and Singapore, as prescribed by the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language.
- Current Use
- Simplified vs. Traditional Characters
When the People's Republic of China was formed in 1949, the Communist Party of China under Mao Zedong wanted to help the Chinese people read and write. Before 1949, most Chinese people could not read. The government hoped that by using fewer strokes to write characters, along with many other changes in the education system, the Chinese language would become more standardized like Japanese. The Empire of Japan had brought changes to the Japanese writing system during the earlier Meiji Restoration to make literacy and education more widely available to all Japanese citizens. Mao also hoped that simplifying Chinese characters would begin to shift Chinese people away from using the character system itself and that eventually Chinese-speakers would only use a phoneticalphabet to write. The first set of simplified Chinese characters were first put to public use in 1956. Over time, more characters became "simplified", or existing ones changed, once in 1964 and again in 1978 and 1984. Many...
Today, simplified Chinese characters are used throughout Mainland China. It is also taught and used in some countries in Southeast Asia, including Singapore, and Malaysia. Since the Republic of China fled to Taiwan and became separated from the rest of China, the government there did not choose to simplify its writing system, and so it still uses the older traditional Chinese characters. The territories of Hong Kong and Macau have also kept using traditional characters, even though they are politicallypart of the rest of China, which switched to simplified characters. It could not be proven that Simplified Chinese characters were able to help people with reading and writing. As places using Traditional Chinese characters did not have literacy problems, in 2009 Pan Qing-Lin, a Chinese official, suggested to stop using Simplified Chinese characters. This did not happen. In multi-racial societies, like Singapore, students have been learning a second language for many years. Because of...
Below is a list of simplified characters next to their traditional versions. There are several ways to simplify characters. 1. Write a character or one of its radicals in its cursive form. For example, 长 is a cursive form of 長, and 话, 银, 饮, and 狗 are cursive forms of 話, 銀, 飮, and 豿 in the same order. 2. Replace a traditional character with an existing character for a word that has the same pronunciation.For example, the character 面 was and still is a traditional character that means "face" or "side", but it is now also the simplified version "noodles", since both words have the same pronunciation, miàn, and has replaced the traditional character 麵. 3. Replace a radical in the character using has another radical with a similar or the same pronunciation. For example, the top part of 華, pronounced huá, is replaced with 化, pronounced huà, making the simplified character 华. 4. Remove a radical from the traditional character. For example, the simplified character 杀 completely removes the...
In China, which uses simplified Chinese characters, the Xiàndài Hànyǔ Chángyòng Zìbiǎo (现代汉语常用字表, Chart of Common Characters of Modern Chinese) lists 2,500 common characters and 1,000 less-than-common characters, while the Xiàndài Hànyǔ Tōngyòng Zìbiǎo (现代汉语通用字表, Chart of Generally Utilized Characters of Modern Chinese) lists 7,000 characters, including the 3,500 characters already listed above.
Pages in category "Simplified Chinese characters" The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
Simplified Chinese characters (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters used in Mainland China, Malaysia, and Singapore, as prescribed by the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language.
- Chinese Characters in Other Languages
- Related Pages
Chinese characters are a type of logogram, which are written symbols that represent words instead of sounds. Most earlier Chinese characters were pictographs, which are simple pictures used to mean some kind of thing or idea. Today, very few modern Chinese characters are pure pictographs, but are a combination of two or more simple characters, also known as radicals. While many radicals and characters show a word's meaning, some give hints of the word's pronunciation instead. To better explain the different purposes and types of Chinese characters that exist, Chinese scholars have divided Chinese characters into six categories known as liushu (六书 / 六書), literally translated as the Six Books. The six types of Chinese characters are: 1. Pictographs, xiàng xÍng (象形): characters that use a simple picture, or one radical, that directly represent concrete nouns, like persons, places, and things. Examples include: 1. Simple ideograms, zhǐ shì (指事): characters that use one radical, to repre...
Chinese characters have been used to write other languages. There are still many Chinese characters that are used in Japanese and Korean. Generally the educational level of a Japanese person is decided by the number of Chinese characters understood by this person. While Koreans nowadays mostly write in hangul, the native Korean alphabet, people have found that some meanings cannot be expressed clearly by just hangul, so people need to use Chinese characters as a note with a bracket. Before 1446, Korean people only used Chinese characters. In Japanese, characters that are borrowed from the Chinese language are called kanji. Kanji can be used to write both native Japanese words and Chinese loanwords. Japanese writing uses a mix of kanji and two kana systems. Kanji is mostly used to show a word's meaning, while hiragana and katakana are syllabariesthat show the pronunciation of Japanese words. Both writing systems are used often when writing Japanese. In Korean, they are called hanja....
So Han officials decided to simplify writing Chinese characters by using multiple strokes, or lines, to form characters and radicals, rather than long curved lines. The changed small seal script characters are now commonly known as Hanzi (Simplified Chinese: 汉字 / Traditional Chinese: 漢字, meaning "Han characters"), because they were from the Han Dynasty.
- Method of Simplification
- Distribution and Use
- Computer Encoding
- Web Pages
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Singapore and Malaysia
Singapore underwent three successive rounds of character simplification, eventually arriving at the same set of simplified characters as Mainland China. The first round, consisting of 498 Simplified characters from 502 Traditional characters, was promulgated by the Ministry of Education in 1969. The second round, consisting of 2287 Simplified characters, was promulgated in 1974. The second set contained 49 differences from the Mainland China...
A small group called Dou Zi Sei (T:導字社; S:导字社)/Dou Zi Wui (T:導字會; S:导字会) attempted to introduce a special version of simplified characters using romanizations in the 1930s. Today, however, the traditional characters remain dominant in Hong Kong.
After World War II, Japan also simplified a number of Chinese characters (kanji) used in the Japanese language. The new forms are called shinjitai. Compared to Chinese, the Japanese reform was more limited, simplifying only a few hundred characters, most of which were already in use in cursive script. Further, the list of simplifications was exhaustive, unlike Chinese simplification – thus analogous simplifications of not explicitly simplified cha...
Structural simplification of characters
1. All characters simplified this way are enumerated in Chart 1 and Chart 2 in Jianhuazi zong biao (简化字总表[permanent dead link]), "Complete List of Simplified Characters" announced in 1986.简化字总表 2. Chart 1lists all 350 characters that are used by themselves, and can never serve as 'simplified character components'. 3. Chart 2lists 132 characters that are used by themselves as well as utilized as simplified character components to further derive other simplified characters. Chart 2 also lists 1...
Derivation based on simplified character components
1. Chart 3lists 1,753 characters which are simplified based on the same simplification principles used for character components and radicals in Chart 2. This list is non-exhaustive, so if a character is not already found in Chart 1, 2 or 3, but can be simplified in accordance with Chart 2, the character should be simplified.
Elimination of variants of the same character
1. Series One Organization List of Variant Characters accounts for some of the orthography difference between Mainland China on the one hand, and Hong Kong and Taiwan on the other. These are not simplifications of character structures, but rather reduction in number of total standard characters. For each set of variant charactersthat share the identical pronunciation and meaning, one character (usually the simplest in form) is elevated to the standard character set, and the rest are obsoleted...
The People's Republic of China, Singapore and Malaysia generally use simplified characters. They appear very sparingly in printed text produced in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and overseas Chinese communities, although they are becoming more prevalent as China opens to the world. Conversely, the mainland is seeing an increase in the use of traditional forms, where they are often used on signs, and in logos, blogs, dictionaries, and scholarly works.
In general, schools in Mainland China, Malaysia and Singapore use simplified characters exclusively, while schools in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan use traditional characters exclusively. Today, simplified Chinese characters predominate among college and university programs teaching Chinese as a foreign language outside of China, such as those in the United States.
In computer text applications, the GB encoding schememost often renders simplified Chinese characters, while Big5 most often renders traditional characters. Although neither encoding has an explicit connection with a specific character set, the lack of a one-to-one mapping between the simplified and traditional sets established a de facto linkage. Since simplified Chinese conflated many characters into one and since the initial version of the GB encoding scheme, known as GB2312-80, contained only one code point for each character, it is impossible to use GB2312 to map to the bigger set of traditional characters. It is theoretically possible to use Big5 code to map to the smaller set of simplified character glyphs, although there is little market for such a product. Newer and alternative forms of GB have support for traditional characters. In particular, mainland authorities have now established G...
The World Wide Web Consortium's Internationalization working group recommends the use of the language tag zh-Hansas a language attribute value and Content-Language value to specify web-page content in simplified Chinese characters.Bergman, P. M. (1980). The basic English-Chinese, Chinese-English dictionary: using simplified characters (with an appendix containing the original complex characters) transliterated in accordance...Bökset, R. (2006). Long story of short forms: the evolution of simplified Chinese characters. Stockholm East Asian monographs, No. 11. Stockholm: Dept. of Oriental Languages, Stockholm University....Chen, H. (1987). Simplified Chinese characters. Torrance, CA: Heian. ISBN 0-89346-293-4.Andrew West, Proposal to Encode Obsolete Simplified Chinese Characters