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  1. Tibetan grammar describes the morphology, syntax and other grammatical features of Standard Tibetan, a Sino-Tibetan language. Standard Tibetan is typologically an ergative–absolutive language. Nouns are generally unmarked for grammatical number, but are marked for case. Adjectives are never marked and appear after the noun.

  2. Lhasa Tibetan [a] ( Tibetan: ལྷ་སའི་སྐད་, Wylie: Lha-sa'i skad, THL: Lhaséké, ZYPY: Lasägä ), or Standard Tibetan, is the Tibetan dialect spoken by educated people of Lhasa, the capital of the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. [2] It is an official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region. [3]

    • (1.2 million cited 1990 census)
    • Lhasa
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  4. Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period. Though it extends from the 12th century until the modern day, [1] it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.

  5. Areas in which concentrations of ethnic Tibetans live within China. The Tibetan people ( Standard Tibetan: བོད་པ་) are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet. They number about 7.8 million. In 2014, there were 7.5 million Tibetans living in Tibet and the 10 Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures in Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan.

    • Registers
    • Grammar
    • Numerals
    • Writing System
    • Phonology of Modern Lhasa Tibetan
    • Verbal System
    • Contemporary Usage
    • Further Reading

    Like many languages, Standard Tibetan has a variety of language registers: 1. Phal-skad ("demoticlanguage"): the vernacular speech. 2. Zhe-sa ("polite respectful speech"): the formal spoken style, particularly prominent in Lhasa. 3. Chos-skad ("religious language"): the literary style in which the scripturesand other classical works are written.

    Syntax and word order

    Tibetan is an ergative language. Grammatical constituents broadly have head-finalword order: 1. adjectives generally follow nouns in Tibetan, unless the two are linked by a genitive particle 2. objects and adverbs precede the verb, as do adjectives in copular clauses 3. a noun marked with the genitive case precedes the noun which it modifies 4. demonstratives and numerals follow the noun they modify

    Unlike many other languages of East Asia and especially Chinese, another Sino-Tibetan language, there are no numeral auxiliaries or measure wordsused in counting in Tibetan although words expressive of a collective or integral are often used after the tens, sometimes after a smaller number. In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as in ...

    Tibetan is written with an Indic script, with a historically conservative orthography that reflects Old Tibetanphonology and helps unify the Tibetan-language area. Wylie transliteration is the most common system of romanization used by Western scholars in rendering written Tibetan using the Latin alphabet (such as employed on much of this page). Ti...

    The following summarizes the sound system of the dialect of Tibetan spoken in Lhasa, the most influential variety of the spoken language.

    The standard Tibetan verbal system distinguishes four tenses and three evidential moods. The three moods may all occur with all three grammatical persons, though early descriptions associated the personal modal category with European first-person agreement.

    In much of Tibet, primary education is conducted either primarily or entirely in the Tibetan language, and bilingual education is rarely introduced before students reach middle school. However, Chinese is the language of instruction of most Tibetan secondary schools. Students who continue on, to tertiary education, have the option of studying human...

    Bernard, Theos C. (1946), A Simplified Grammar of the Literary Tibetan Language, Santa Barbara, California: Tibetan Text Society.
    Das, Sarat Chandra (1902), Tibetan–English Dictionary (with Sanskrit Synonyms), Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot.. Reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Dehli, ISBN 81-208-1713-3.
    Hodge, Stephen (2003), An Introduction to Classical Tibetan, Orchid Press, ISBN 974-524-039-7.
    Jäschke, Heinrich August (2004), A short practical grammar of the Tibetan language, with special reference to the spoken dialects, London: Hardinge Simpole, ISBN 1-84382-077-3." ... contains a facs...
  6. Tibetan was originally one of the scripts in the first version of the Unicode Standard in 1991, in the Unicode block U+1000–U+104F. However, in 1993, in version 1.1, it was removed (the code points it took up would later be used for the Burmese script in version 3.0). The Tibetan script was re-added in July, 1996 with the release of version 2.0.

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