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  1. › wiki › UrukUruk - Wikipedia

    Uruk, also known as Warka, was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia) situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates 30 km (19 mi) east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.

    • Sumerian King List

      The Sumerian King List (abbreviated SKL) or Chronicle of the...

    • Utu-hengal

      Utu-hengal (Sumerian: 𒀭𒌓𒃶𒅅, D utu-ḫe₂-ŋal₂), also written...

    • Uruk Period

      The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC; also known as...

  2. › wiki › Art_of_UrukArt of Uruk - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Sculpture
    • Seals
    • Pottery
    • Writing
    • Architecture

    The art of Uruk encompasses the sculptures, seals, pottery, architecture, and other arts produced in Uruk, an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia that thrived during the Uruk period around 4200-3000 BCE.: 40 The city continued to develop into the Early Dynastic Period around 2900-2350 BCE. Considered one of the first cities, the site of Uruk – modern-day Warka in Iraq – shows evidence of social stratification, institutionalized religion, a centralized administration, and what art...

    Votive sculptures in the form of small animal figurines have been found at Uruk, using a style mixing naturalistic and abstract elements in order to capture the spiritual essence of the animal, rather than depicting an entirely anatomically accurate figure.: 50 The use of animal figures as votive offerings as opposed to human figures probably replaces a ritual act of animal sacrifice and makes it eternal by leaving the image of the sacrificed animal in the temple.: 51 Many of these animal votive

    Beginning in the Middle Uruk period, traditional stamp seals were replaced by cylinder seals.: 212 Uruk was the first civilization to make use of cylinder seals, a practice that would eventually permeate the entirety of the ancient Near East, as well as Bronze Age Greece.: 54 Cylinder seals were used by individuals and were a marker of one's identity as they acted as a signature and were used for officiating documents.: 54 The small objects were cylindrical in shape and were engraved with metal

    Pottery found at Uruk includes wheel made, hand-made and molded pieces. Potters at Uruk specialized in mass-produced functional vessels. The fast potter's wheel was introduced during the later part of the Uruk period, making it quicker and easier to produce pottery on a massive scale and with a greater sense of standardization. Thousands of beveled rim bowls have been found at the site, and it has been theorized that they were used to measure rations for families or dependant laborers.: 5 Anothe

    Archaeologists have found what are considered to be the oldest written texts at Uruk.: 56 From the start of excavation at Uruk in the early 1900s, archaeologists found clay tablets with pictographic signs that were recognized as precursors to cuneiform script.: 11 This “proto-cuneiform” was drawn into the clay using a pointed tool and additional circular impressions symbolized numbers. Dated to around 3200 BCE, these earliest tablets were found amongst discarded materials in pits on ...

    The largest remaining ruins at Uruk are the temple structures near the center of the city. The ruins, which consist of an approximately 6 square kilometer area, are encircled by a city wall. Uruk temple architecture followed the building plans of the previous Ubaid culture. Structures were made on tripartite plans with a central hall and smaller rooms on either side.: 425 One of the most famous examples of Uruk temples is the White Temple, named after the white gypsum plaster that covered it. Th

  3. › wiki › UrukUruk – Wikipedia

    Uruk (sumeriska: Unug, hebreiska: Erech, arabiska: Warka) var en stad i Sumer och senare Babylonien vid floden Eufrat i dagens Irak.Den utsågs, tillsammans med två andra ruinstäder och fyra våtområden i södra Irak till världsarv av Unesco år 2016.

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    Trong thần thoại và văn học, Uruk nổi tiếng là kinh đô của Gilgamesh, người anh hùng trong Sử thi Gilgamesh. Người ta cũng tin rằng Uruk chính là thành Erech được nhắc đến trong Kinh thánh (Sáng thế ký10:10), thành phố thứ hai được thành lập bởi Nimrod ở Shinar.

    Theo danh sách vua Sumer, Uruk được thành lập bởi vua Enmerkar. Mặc dù Danh sách vua đề cập đến một vị vua của Eanna trước ông ta, sử thi Enmerkar và Chúa tể Aratta đề cập đến việc Enmerkar xây dựng một ngôi đền vĩ đại (Tiếng Sumer: e 2 -anna; chữ hình nêm: 𒂍𒀭 E 2. AN) cho nữ thần Inanna ở quận Eanna của Uruk. Trong Sử thi Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh là vua của Uruk và là người đã xây dựng bức tường thành bao quanh thành phố. Uruk đã trải qua nhiều giai đoạn phát triển, từ thời kỳ Uruk sơ kỳ (4000-3500 TCN) đến thời kỳ Uruk hậu kỳ (3500-3100 TCN). Thành phố được hình thành từ hai khu định cư thời Ubaid nhỏ hơn. Trung tâm thành phố là các khu đền thờ, dần phát triển thành Quận Eanna và Quận Anu mang tên Inanna và Anu. Quận Anu ban đầu được gọi là 'Kullaba' (Kulab hoặc Unug-Kulaba) trước khi sáp nhập với Quận Eanna. Kullaba có từ thời Eridu, là một trong những thành thị lâu đời nhất và quan trọng nhất của Sumer. Có nhiều cách giải thích khác nhau về mục đích của các ngôi đền. Tuy nhiên, ng...

    Baker, H.D. “The Urban Landscape in First Millennium BC Babylonia”. University of Vienna. Chú thích journal cần |journal= (trợ giúp)
    Beaulieu, Paul-Alain (2003). The Pantheon of Uruk During the Neo-Babylonian Period. BRILL. tr. 424. ISBN 90-04-13024-1.
    Charvát, Petr; Zainab Bahrani; Marc Van de Mieroop (2002). Mesopotamia Before History. London: Routledge. tr. 281. ISBN 0-415-25104-4.
    Crawford, Harriet E. W. (2004). Sumer and the Sumerians. Cambridge University Press. tr. 252. ISBN 0-521-53338-4.
    Chisholm, Hugh biên tập (1911). “Erech” . Encyclopædia Britannica. 9(ấn bản 11). Cambridge University Press. tr. 734–735.
    Green, MW (1984). “The Uruk Lament”. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 104 (2): 253–279. doi:10.2307/602171. JSTOR 602171.
    Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East. London: Routledge. tr. 782. ISBN 0-415-16763-9.
    Liverani, Mario; Zainab Bahrani; Marc Van de Mieroop (2006). Uruk: The First City. London: Equinox Publishing. tr. 97. ISBN 1-84553-191-4.
    Bằng chứng sớm nhất cho chiến tranh có tổ chức quy mô lớn trong thế giới Lưỡng Hà (Hamoukar vs. Uruk?
    • Khu định cư
    • Al-Warka, Muthanna, Iraq
  5. Category:Uruk. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Articles relating to Uruk, an ancient city of Sumer .

  6. › wiki › Uruk_TroughUruk Trough - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • History and discovery
    • Description

    The Uruk Trough is an important Sumerian sculpture found at the site of Uruk, Iraq. It has been part of the British Museum's collection since 1928. Along with the Uruk Vase, the trough is considered to be one of the earliest surviving works of narrative relief sculpture from the Middle East, dating to 3300-3000 BC, during the Uruk period. Simple relief sculpture is known from much earlier periods, from the site of Göbekli Tepe, dating to circa 9000 BC. It is thought to have served as some...

    The trough was found at Uruk, an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia situated east of the Euphrates in southern Iraq. During the Uruk period Uruk was one of the largest cities in southern Mesopotamia, stretching over an area of 5 square kilometres. For a long time power seems to have been concentrated in the temples or religious organisations but eventually King Gilgamesh took over, building new structures and a massive city wall. The Uruk Trough was probably a venerated object in one of t

    The Uruk Trough is made of gypsum and is approximately 1 m long. A fragment of one end of the object is now in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. Although called a 'trough' it is unlikely that it was used as such, as the decoration would have not been visible to viewers. It is more likely it was used as some sort of cult image, perhaps in the temple of Inanna, the principle goddess in ancient Mesopotamia at this time. The carving shows a procession of rams, ewes and lambs approaching or eme

    • 3300-3000 BC
    • 96.5 cm long
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