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The scope of ancient Western philosophy included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics, astronomy, and biology (Aristotle, for example, wrote on all of these topics).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by the philosopher Bertrand Russell.
- Bertrand Russell
- 1945 (US), 1946 (UK)
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From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Western philosophy is the school of thinking of Western civilization. Generally, it is seen to start with the philosophy of Ancient Greece. Its early devleopment mainly occurred in Europe and the countries around the Mediterranean.
- Primary values
- Secondary values
- Theories of value
The values that a person holds may be personal or political depending on whether they are considered in relation to the individual or to society. Apart from moral virtue, examples of personal values include friendship, knowledge, beauty etc. and examples of political values, justice, equality and liberty. This article will outline some current ideas relating to the first group - personal values. It will begin by looking at the kinds of thing that have value and finish with a look at some of the
It is only in the last hundred years or so that the subject of value has become a subject of study in its own right, though the subject builds on the work of such earlier thinkers as Plato, Immanuel Kant and Jeremy Bentham. A new field of enquiry called “axiology”, defined as “the philosophical study of goodness or value”, began to emerge at around the beginning of the twentieth century, and its significance lay in extending the scope of the term “value” into fields other than ...
Frankena in his list of values groups beauty with harmony, proportion and aesthetic experience. There are many different kinds of value that can be included in this category and Frankena himself distinguishes between “harmony and proportion in objects contemplated” and ...
The second group of values listed by Frankena includes happiness, virtue, pleasure, satisfaction and contentment - values traditionally associated with the field of ethics. Zimmerman introduces Plato whose recurring concern was with the nature of the good, how we should live our
The third of the classical values - truth – is listed by Frankena alongside knowledge, understanding and wisdom. Given that “truth may never be fully known” he shifted the emphasis onto knowledge, and most lists of values now tend to include knowledge rather than truth ...
The end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries saw an expansion in the number of values over and above the “classical” or primary values of beauty, goodness and truth. Some, like love, friendship and affection, clearly come from the Christian tradition and were discussed by philosophers like Moore and Brentano. A more complex group revolving around concepts such as power, spirit and the will were introduced as values by Brentano and Hartmann and owe as much to ...
Various theories have been put forward in the West to try and define what a value “is” – as opposed to saying what kinds of value a thing may “have”. There are generally held to be three kinds of theory at present that attempt to answer the question of what a value is and these have been borrowed from the field of ethics. Each group of theories tends to concentrate on different aspects of the subject so that if ethics can be defined as, say, the principles governing the conduct of ...
- Hellenistic philosophy
- Phenomenology and Existentialism
Traditions by region African Eastern Chinese Indian Middle-Eastern Egyptian Iranian Western Literature Aesthetics Epistemology Ethics Logic Metaphysics Political philosophy Philosophers Aestheticians Epistemologists Ethicists Logicians Metaphysicians Social and political philosophers Women in philosophy Lists Index Outline Years Problems Publications Theories Glossary Philosophers Philosophy portal v t e Buddhist thought and Western philosophy include several parallels. In antiquity, the Greek p
According to Edward Conze, Pyrrhonism has similarities with Buddhist philosophy, especially the Indian Madhyamika school. The Pyrrhonist goal of ataraxia is a soteriological goal similar to nirvana. The Pyrrhonists promoted suspending judgment about dogma as the way to reach ataraxia. This is similar to the Buddha's refusal to answer certain metaphysical questions which he saw as non-conductive to the path of Buddhist practice and Nagarjuna's "relinquishing of all views ". Pyrrho taught that thi
Idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Some Buddhist philosophical views have been interpreted as having Idealistic tendencies, mainly the cittamatra philosophy of Yogacara Buddhism as outlined in the works of Vasubandhu and Xuanzang. Metaphysical Idealism has been the orthodox position of the Chinese Yogacara school or Fǎxiàng-zōng. According to Buddhist ...
Friedrich Nietzsche admired Buddhism, writing that: "Buddhism already has - and this distinguishes it profoundly from Christianity - the self-deception of moral concepts behind it - it stands, in my language, Beyond Good and Evil." Nietzsche saw himself as undertaking a similar project to the Buddha. "I could become the Buddha of Europe", he wrote in 1883, "though frankly I would be the antipode of the Indian Buddha". Nietzsche accepted that all is change and becoming, and both sought to create
The German Buddhist monk Nyanaponika Thera wrote that the Buddhist Abhidhamma philosophy "doubtlessly belongs" to Phenomenology and that the Buddhist term dhamma could be rendered as "phenomenon". Likewise, Alexander Piatigorsky sees early Buddhist Abhidhamma philosophy as being a "phenomenological approach". According to Dan Lusthaus, Buddhism "is a type of phenomenology; Yogacara even moreso." Some scholars reject the idealist interpretation of Yogacara Buddhist philosophy and instead interpre
Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with the ancient Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics.
- Greek Philosophers
- Hellenistic Era Philosophers
- Roman Era Philosophers
- Medieval Philosophers
- Early Modern Philosophers
- Modern Philosophers
1. Thales of Miletus (c. 624 – 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of water. 2. Pherecydes of Syros(c. 620 – c. 550 BCE). Cosmologist. 3. Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610 – 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Famous for the concept of Apeiron, or "the boundless". 4. Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 585 – 525 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of air. 5. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580 – c. 500 BCE). Of the Ionian School. Believed the deepest reality to be compo...
1. Heraclitusof Ephesus (c. 535 – c. 475 BCE). Of the Ionians. Emphasized the mutability of the universe. 2. Parmenidesof Elea (c. 515 – 450 BCE). Of the Eleatics. Reflected on the concept of Being. 3. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (c. 500 – 428 BCE). Of the Ionians. Pluralist. 4. Empedocles (492 – 432 BCE). Eclectic cosmogonist. Pluralist. 5. Zeno of Elea(c. 490 – 430 BCE). Of the Eleatics. Known for his paradoxes. 6. Protagoras of Abdera (c. 481 – 420 BCE). Sophist. Early advocate of relativism....
1. Antisthenes (c. 444 – 365 BCE). Founder of Cynicism. Pupil of Socrates. 2. Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 440 – 366 BCE). A Cyrenaic. Advocate of ethical hedonism. 3. Alcidamasc. 435 – c. 350 BCE). Sophist. 4. Lycophron (Sophist)c. 430 – c. 350 BCE). Sophist. 5. Diogenes of Apollonia(c. 425 – c 350 BCE). Cosmologist. 6. Hippo(c. 425 – c 350 BCE). Atheist cosmologist. 7. Xenophon(c. 427 – 355 BCE). Historian. 8. Plato (c. 427 – 347 BCE). Famed for view of the transcendental forms. Advocated polit...
1. Theophrastus (c. 371 – c. 287 BCE). Peripatetic. 2. Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360 – 270 BCE). Skeptic. 3. Strato of Lampsacus (c. 340 – c. 268 BCE). Atheist, Materialist. 4. Theodorus the Atheist (c. 340 – c. 250 BCE). Cyrenaic. 5. Epicurus (c. 341 – 270 BCE). Materialist Atomist, hedonist. Founder of Epicureanism 6. Zeno of Citium (c. 333 – 264 BCE). Founder of Stoicism. 7. Timon (c. 320 – 230 BCE). Pyrrhonist, skeptic. 8. Aristarchus of Samos(c. 310 – c. 230 BCE). Astronomer. 9. Euclid (fl.300...
1. Carneades (c. 214 – 129 BCE). Academic skeptic. Understood probabilityas the purveyor of truth. 2. Hipparchus of Nicaea(c. 190 – c. 120 BCE). Astronomer and mathematician, founder of trigonometry.
100 BCE – 1 CE
1. Cicero(c. 106 BCE – 43 BCE) Skeptic. Political theorist. 2. Lucretius (c. 99 – 55 BCE). Epicurean.
1. Philo(c. 20 BCE – 50 CE). Believed in the allegorical method of reading texts. 2. Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BCE – 65 CE). Stoic. 3. Quintilian(c. 35 CE – c. 100 CE). Rhetorician and teacher. 4. Hero of Alexandria(c. 10 CE – c. 70 CE). Engineer.
1. Epictetus (c. 55 – 135). Stoic. Emphasized ethics of self–determination. 2. Marcus Aurelius (121–180). Stoic.
1. Boethius(c. 480–524). 2. John Philoponus(c. 490–570). 3. John of Damascus(c. 680-750).
1. Al-Kindi (c. 801 – 873). Major figure in Islamic philosophy. Influenced by Neoplatonism. 2. Abbas ibn Firnas(809–887). Polymath. 3. John the Scot (c. 815 – 877). neoplatonist, pantheist.
1. al–Faràbi (c. 870 – 950). Major Islamic philosopher. Neoplatonist. 2. Saadia Gaon (c. 882 – 942). Jewish Philosopher 3. al-Razi (c. 865 – 925). Rationalist. Major Islamic philosopher. Held that God creates universe by rearranging pre–existing laws.
1. Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536). Humanist, advocate of free will. 2. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527). Political realism. 3. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543). Scientist, whose works affected Philosophy of Science. 4. Sir Thomas More (1478–1535). Humanist, created term "utopia". 5. Martin Luther (1483–1546). Major Western Christian theologian. 6. Petrus Ramus(1515–1572).
1. John Calvin (1509–1564). Major Western Christiantheologian. 2. Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592). Humanist, skeptic. 3. Pierre Charron(1541–1603). 4. Giordano Bruno (1548–1600). Advocate of heliocentrism. 5. Francisco Suarez(1548–1617). Politically proto–liberal. 6. Johannes Kepler (1571–1630). Scientist, whose works affected Philosophy of Science. 7. Molla-Sadra (1572–1640). Major Islamic philosopher.
1. Herbert of Cherbury(1583–1648). Nativist. 2. Francis Bacon (1561–1626). Empiricist. 3. Galileo Galilei(1564–1642). Heliocentrist. 4. Hugo Grotius (1583–1645). Natural lawtheorist. 5. François de La Mothe Le Vayer(1588–1672) 6. Marin Mersenne (1588–1648). Cartesian. 7. Robert Filmer(1588–1653). 8. Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655). Mechanicism. Empiricist. 9. René Descartes (1596–1650). Heliocentrism, mind-body dualism, rationalism. 10. Baltasar Gracián(1601–1658). Spanish catholic philosopher
1. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck(1744–1829). Early evolutionary theorist. 2. Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749–1827). Determinist. 3. Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821) Conservative 4. Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825). Socialist. 5. Madame de Staël(1766–1817). 6. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834). Hermeneutician. 7. G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831). German idealist. 8. James Mill (1773–1836). Utilitarian. 9. F. W. J. von Schelling (1775–1854). German idealist. 10. Bernard Bolzano(1781–1848). 11. Richard Whately(178...
1. Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet(1788–1856). 2. Sojourner Truth(c. 1797–1883). Egalitarian, abolitionist. 3. Harriet Taylor Mill(1807–1858). Egalitarian, utilitarian. 4. Mikhail Bakunin(1814–1876). Revolutionary anarchist. 5. Elizabeth Cady Stanton(1815–1902). Egalitarian. 6. Hermann Lotze(1817–1881). 7. Karl Marx (1818–1883). Socialist, formulated historical materialism. 8. Friedrich Engels(1820–1895). Egalitarian, dialectical materialist. 9. Herbert Spencer(1820–1903). Nativism, liberta...
1. George Santayana (1863–1952). Pragmatism, naturalism; known for many aphorisms. 2. H.A. Prichard(1871–1947). Moral intuitionist. 3. Bertrand Russell (1872–1970). Analytic philosopher, nontheist, influential. 4. A.O. Lovejoy(1873–1962). 5. Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948). Existentialist. 6. Ernst Cassirer(1874–1945). 7. Max Scheler(1874–1928). German phenomenologist. 8. Giovanni Gentile (1875–1944). Idealist and fascistphilosopher. 9. Ralph Barton Perry(1876–1957). 10. W.D. Ross (1877–1971). D...
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world, dating back to pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in 6th-century Greece (BCE), such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 545 BCE) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BCE) who practiced a 'love of wisdom' (Latin: philosophia) and were also termed 'students of nature' (physiologoi).
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe.