- Chinese history is divided into dynasties, each of which marks the period when a line of emperors ruled. The first empire was the Qin dynasty and began in 221 B.C. The last emperor was overthrown in 1912, and China became a republic. The communist government began its rule in 1949 following a civil war with the Chinese Nationalists.
People also ask
What is the early history of China?
What are some historical facts about China?
What are some historical events in China?
What are some things about ancient China?
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same.
• 221-206 B.C.: Qin Dynasty - The Qin Dynasty, from which China derives its name (Qin is pronounced “Chin”), was the first official empire in its history. The Qins standardized regional written...
- Timeline of Chinese History
- Prehistoric China — Up to About 1600 BC
- Ancient China
- Imperial China
- The Qin and Han Dynasties
- China's Dark Ages
- Medieval China
- The Final Dynasties (1368–1912) — Renaissance and More Foreign Rule
- The Republic of China Era
- Modern China
- Related Articles
Pre-1600 BC, China is charted mainly by legends and prehistoric evidence. The ancient China era was c. 1600–221 BC. The imperial era was 221 BC – 1912 AD, from China's unification under Qin rule until the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China era was from 1912 until 1949, and the modern China era from 1949 until the present day. Read on for a snapshot of China's historical timeline and some key events. There’s also a simple comparison with the world’s cultural development.
Prehistoric China's chronology is dividedinto the Paleolithic Age, the Neolithic Age, and the Bronze Age. Without any reliable historical records, most of what has been pieced together about prehistoric life in China comes from speculation about human activity at archaeological sites and unearthed relics. The rest comes from what might be truth within Chinese mythology.
Chinese civilization began along the Yellow River in the Shang era, and spread from there when Bronze Age culture reached its peak. Then, traditional Chinese philosophies, such as Confucianism and Daoism, developed in the feudal Zhou era as China expanded in territory and population. Ancient China finally fractured into warring kingdoms for 200 years, and its reunification marked the start of the imperial China age.
From the first centralized feudal empire, the Qin Dynasty, which was established in 221 BC, until the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, this period is known as the imperial era of China. The imperial China period makes up the bulk of Chinese history. With the cyclical rise and fall of dynasties, Chinese civilization was cultivated and prospered in times of peace, then reformed after rebellions and conquests.
The Qin and Han dynasties were the initial period of the Chinese empire. During this period, a number of institutions were established that laid the foundation of the basic political system for the next 2,000 years. The short-lived Qin Dynasty was the first to unite China as a country under an emperor instead of a ruling clan. A bureaucratic government was introduced, and was continued by the less extreme Han Dynasty.
When the Han Dynasty fell into decline, it fractured into the Three Kingdoms Period (220–265).After the Three Kingdoms Period came the Jin Dynasty, which thenconquered most of China (265–420). Its hold on power was tenuous, however, andChina again fractured, this time into the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589). During this messy time, many religions emerged and Buddhism was popular among the barbarian kingdoms in North China. After almost 400 years of chaos ended, the Sui Dynasty even...
China's Middle Ages saw steady growth through a series of regime changes. China went from having four warring kingdoms to being the most culturally sophisticated and technologically developed nation. Finally, it was consumed by the rise and fall of the phenomenal Mongol Empire, which stretched to Europe.
In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the imperial social structure (the royal/rich class, the scholarly class, the working class, and the slaves) and imperial examinations continued. However, they became increasingly inadequate in the ages of exploration, colonization, and industrialization.
The Republican Revolution of 1911, led by Sun Yat-sen, ended the rule of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Republic of China could not be firmly established across China, with civil war ensuing for decades.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, China has entered a Communist era of stability, with the Reform and Opening Up policy of 1978 bringing in China's phenomenal economic growth.
1. Ancient China Maps 2. Ancient Chinese Culture (1600–221 BC) — Development and Features 3. Beijing History — Strategic Location, Historic Capital, Major City 4. The History of the Great Wall — 7+ Dynasties; 2,000+ years
Chinese legendary history can be traced back to 2697 bc, the first year of Huang Ti (Chinese: Yellow Emperor), who was followed by many successors and by the three dynasties, the Hsia, the Shang, and the Chou. Recent archaeological findings, however, have established an…
- Prehistoric China
- Early Civilizations
- Dynastic China
- Xinhai Revolution
- Modern Taiwan and The People's Republic of China
The origin of Chinese Civilization is dated back to the Paleolithic Age when Homo Erectus lived in the area more than a million years ago. One archaeological site at Shanxi Province is dated back to some 1.27 million years. Then came the Neolithic Age which came around 10,000 BC and carries an evidence of the proto-Chinese millet agriculture, and even settlement along the famous Yangtze River is said to be around 8,000 years old. In the latter half of the Neolithic Age, the establishment of the Yellow Rivercivilization led to the establishment of the Yangshao culture, which is known to have yielded the most significant sites from the era.
The early Chinese Civilization included the Xia Dynasty which remained from around 2100 BC until 1600 BC, and is described in the ancient Records of the Grand Historians, from which pottery and shells have been excavated that belonged to this period. After that, it was followed by the Shang Dynasty which existed from 1600-1046 BC. The oracle bones were found during this time which had divination records inscribed on it. The beginning of the Zhou Dynasty was witnessed in 1046 to 256 BC which actually emerged in the Yellow River Valley and they began their rule under the semi-feudal system. The spring and autumn or the Warring States Period saw the annexation by the local military leaders, and the modern system of Sheng and Xian emerged in the country.
The foremost early dynasty was the Qin Dynasty, which came into being from 221-206 BC. In this, the Kings subdued the parts of the Han Chinese homeland and united them under a central legalized government. The other dynasty was Han Dynasty and its period consisted of 202 BC – AD 220. This was regarded as the golden age in the Chinese History, which actually consolidated the foundation of China. Xin dynasty period began in AD 9 and it was said to be the short-lived dynasty, but many economic reforms were undertaken during this period. The other main dynasties which followed after this was Jin Dynasty, Northern and southern dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang dynasty, Five dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms, Yuan Dynasties, and finally it reached the Qing Dynasty.
The Xinhai Revolution is also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, which threw the last Imperial dynasty of China and that, was the Qing Dynasty. It led to the Formation of Republic of China. The revolution witnessed many revolts, and the uprisings and the main turning point of this movement was the Wuchang Uprising which was actually a result of mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. It is seen that the Republic of China in Taiwan (or Formosa)and the People’s Republic of China each consider themselves as the true successors of the Xinhai Revolution.
The People’s Republic of China made the Japanese troops surrender in the mainland and Taiwan following World War II, and after that the main aim was to look after the economic development of Taiwan. There were many international projects started in the mainland, and Taiwan also developed into a major international trading power. The latter even possesses the highest foreign exchange reserves across the globe.
- Khushboo Sheth
May 06, 2019 · The history of China reaches back over 4,000 years. In that time, China has created a culture rich in philosophy and the arts. China has seen the invention of amazing technologies such as silk, paper, gunpowder, and many other products. Over the millennia, China has fought hundreds of wars.
- Chronological Order and Brief History of China
- History of Chinese Culture
- Origin and Prehistory of China
- Ancient Age
- Imperial Era
- Modern Age
As we know that this article is very long, we have prepared a brief history of China for those who do not have time to read the whole article. It is a short summaryand chronology divided into several points: 1. 40,000 B.C. – Appearance of Homo Sapiens in China 2. 17,000 BC – First Ceramics in China 3. 10,000 B.C. – Cultivation of rice and millet 4. 2,500 B.C. – Longshan Culture 5. 2,100 B.C. – Kingdom of Erlitou or Xia Dynasty 6. 1,700 B.C. – Shang Dynasty 7. 1,050 B.C. – Zhou Dynasty 8. 700 B.C. – Construction of the Great Wall begins 1. 221 B.C. – Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty 2. 206 B.C. – Han Dynasty 3. 100 B.C. – Opening of the Silk Road 4. 265 – Jin Dynasty 5. 581 – Sui Dynasty and construction of the Grand Canal begins 6. 618 – Tang Dynasty and Expansion of Buddhism in China 7. 960 – Song Dynasty and trade boom 8. 1271 – Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo arrives in China 9. 1368 – Ming Dynasty 10. 1644 – Qing Dynasty 11. 1856 – Opium Wars 12. 1911 – Republic of China 13....
The history of Chinese Culture is divided into ages of history that are different from those of the West. In Europe are the Ancient, Middle Ages, Modern and Contemporary. But in China there are only three, Ancient, Imperial, and Modern. This is because China never had a Middle Agesas we know it. For power always fell to the officials of the Empire, not to the aristocracy or the nobility. Although there were small periods of exception to this rule.
Many species of Homo began to populate the territory of present-day China tens of thousands of years ago, including the famous Homo Erectus Pekinensis. But we, the Homo Sapiens, would have arrived only 40,000 years ago. The appearance of the first ceramicsis very important, 17,000 years ago, even before becoming sedentary or learning to cultivate. This is a milestone in the history of humanity, because no other human civilization managed to create ceramics so quickly. 10,000 years ago they learned to grow riceon the banks of the Yangtse River and millet on the Huang He River. They also began to domesticate the first animals and use jade. Sedentarization gave rise to China’s first cultures. These are the cultures of Peilikan, Cishan, Yangshao, Dawenkou, and Hongshan. They were all located on the banks of the Yellow River and its tributaries.
In the history of China the Ancient Age is the basis of its culture. At this time appeared the first dynasties of China, the birth of great philosophers such as Confucius, Mencius and Lao Tse, and the entry of Buddhism in China. We know the history of Ancient China well thanks to the historian Sima Qian. This man lived in the 1st century B.C. and wrote the entire history of China from its beginnings to his own days. He is undoubtedly the most important Chinese historian in history.
In the history of China, the Imperial Age is a period apart. China’s dynasties would no longer be governed by nobility, but by officials who gained access to the administration through imperial examinations. Anyone could take these exams (if they saved enough money to pay for them), and if they passed they were admitted to the imperial administration. The officials were in charge of all government tasks; collecting taxes for the central government, recruiting levies, filing information, creating population censuses, governing provinces, etc… As the Mandarin civil service was not a hereditary position, the central government made sure to avoid possible armed rebellions. Although it could do little against corruption, which increased in the last decades of each Chinese dynasty.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, China began to receive Western influences. But due to the tremendous traditional Chinese roots, it was not able to industrialize as quickly as Japan did. As a result, China suffered several anti-western revolts during the Qing dynasty, such as the boxer rebellion. And it was also defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, losing control of Korea and Taiwan.
After 10,000 BC people in China lived by hunting and gathering plants. Then, about 5,000 BC, the Chinese began farming. From about 5,000 BC rice was cultivated in southern China and millet was grown in the north. By 5,000 BC dogs and pigs were domesticated.
Chinese History for Beginners. Condensed China is an introduction to Chinese history. It exists to inform, enlighten, and attract netizens interested in China. It is not a complete history of China; I deliberately skipped over and left out a lot of information. This is more like ''Chinese History: the Cliff Notes version" or "Chinese History's ...
Chinese history is divided into dynasties, each of which marks the period when a line of emperors ruled. The first empire was the Qin dynasty and began in 221 B.C. The last emperor was overthrown...
- related to: What is the basic history of China?