- In 1945, following the end of World War II, the nationalist government of the Republic of China (ROC), led by the Kuomintang (KMT), took control of Taiwan. In 1949, after losing control of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War , the ROC government under the KMT withdrew to Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law.
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Oct 25, 2011 · On Oct. 25, 1971, the United Nations General Assembly voted to admit the People’s Republic of China (mainland China) and to expel the Republic of China (Taiwan). The Communist P.R.C. therefore...
In 1945, at the end of World War II, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies; and Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control. The communist takeover of mainland China in 1949, after the Chinese Civil War , left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands .
The retreat of the Government of the Republic of China to Taiwan, also known as the Kuomintang's retreat to Taiwan, or "The Great Retreat", refers to the exodus of the remnants of the internationally recognized Kuomintang-ruled government of the Republic of China to the island of Taiwan in December 1949 toward the end of active battles in the Chinese Civil War. The Kuomintang, its officers, and approximately 2 million ROC troops took part in the retreat, in addition to many civilians and refugee
- Early Settlement
- Dutch and Spanish Rule
- Kingdom of Tungning
- Qing Rule
- Japanese Rule
- Republic of China Rule
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In the Late Pleistocene, sea levels were about 140 m lower than in the present day, exposing the floor of the shallow Taiwan Strait as a land bridge that was crossed by mainland fauna. The oldest evidence of human presence on Taiwan consists of three cranial fragments and a molar tooth found at Chouqu and Gangzilin, in Zuojhen District, Tainan. These are estimated to be between 20,000 and 30,000 years old. The oldest artefacts are chipped-pebble tools of a Paleolithic culture found in four caves in Changbin, Taitung, dated 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, and similar to contemporary sites in Fujian. The same culture is found at sites at Eluanbi on the southern tip of Taiwan, persisting until 5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Holocene10,000 years ago, sea levels rose, forming the Taiwan Strait and cutting off the island from the Asian mainland. In December 2011, the ~8,000 year old Liangdao Man skeleton was found on Liang Island. In 2014, the mitochondrial DNA of the skeleton was fo...
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) came to the area in search of an Asian trade and military base. Defeated by the Portuguese at the Battle of Macau in 1622, they attempted to occupy Penghu, but were driven off by the Ming authorities. They then built Fort Zeelandia on the islet of Tayowan off the southwest coast of Taiwan. (The site is now part of the main island, in modern Anping, Tainan.) On the adjacent mainland, they built a smaller brick fort, Fort Provintia. Local aboriginals called the area Pakanand on some old maps the island of Taiwan is named Pakan. In 1626, the Spanish Empire, viewing the Dutch presence on Taiwan as a threat to their colony in the Philippines, established a settlement at Santísima Trinidad on the northeast coast of Taiwan (modern Keelung), building Fort San Salvador. They also built Fort Santo Domingo in the northwest (modern Tamsui) in 1629, but had abandoned it by 1638. The small colony was plagued by disease and a hostile local population, and receive...
On the mainland, Manchu forces broke through Shanhai Pass in 1644 and rapidly overwhelmed the Ming dynasty. In 1661, a naval fleet led by the Ming loyalist Koxinga arrived in Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia and establish a pro-Ming base in Taiwan. Koxinga was born to Zheng Zhilong, a Chinese merchant and pirate, and Tagawa Matsu, a Japanese woman, in 1624 in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. He was raised there until seven and moved to Quanzhou, in the Fujian province of China. In a family made wealthy from shipping and piracy, Koxinga inherited his father's trade networks, which stretched from Nagasaki to Macao. Following the Manchu advance on Fujian, Koxinga retreated from his stronghold in Amoy (Xiamen city) and besieged Taiwan in the hope of establishing a strategic base to marshal his troops to retake his base at Amoy. In 1662, following a nine-month siege, Koxinga captured the Dutch fortress Zeelandia and Taiwan became his base (see Kingdom of Tungning). The Taiwanes...
Initial immigration restriction
In 1683, following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang, one of Koxinga's father's trusted friends, Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang, surrendered to the Qing dynasty. There has been much confusion about Taiwan's association with the rumored "Island of Dogs," "Island of Women," etc., which were thought, by Han literati, to lie beyond the seas. Taiwan was officially regarded by the Kangxi Emperor as "a ball of mud beyond the pale of civilization" and did not appear on any map of the imperi...
Early Han settlers
From 1683 to around 1760, the Qing government limited immigration to Taiwan. Such restriction was relaxed following the 1760s and by 1811 there were more than two million Chinese immigrants on Taiwan. In 1875 Taipeh Prefecture was established, under the jurisdiction of Fujian Province. Also, there had been various conflicts between Chinese immigrants. Most conflicts were between Han from Fujian and Han from Guangdong, between people from different areas of Fujian, between Han and Hakka settle...
End of Qing Rule
As part of the settlement for losing the Sino-Japanese War, the Qing empire ceded the islands of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan on April 17, 1895, according to the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The loss of Taiwan would become a rallying point for the Chinese nationalist movement in the years that followed.
Japan had sought to claim sovereignty over Taiwan (known to them as Takasago Koku(高砂國)) since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward and westward. To the west, Japan invaded Koreain that time period, with the eventual conquest of China contemplated. To the south an initial attempt to invade Taiwan and subsequent sporadic invasion attempts spanning three centuries were unsuccessful due mainly to disease and attacks by aborigines on the island. In 1609, the Tokugawa shogunate sent Harunobu Arima on an exploratory mission of the island. An attempted invasion in 1616, led by Murayama Tōan, failed when the fleet was dispersed by a typhoonand the only ship to reach the island was repelled. In the Mudan Incident of 1871, an Okinawan ship was wrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan and 54 crewmen were beheaded by Paiwan aborigines. After the Qing government refused to make compensation, stating that the aboriginals wer...
Taiwan under martial law
The Cairo Conference from November 22–26, 1943 in Cairo, Egypt was held to address the Allied position against Japan during World War II, and to make decisions about postwar Asia. One of the three main clauses of the Cairo Declaration was that "all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China". However, many challenged that the document was merely a statement of intentor non-binding declaration, f...
In the immediate aftermath of World War II, post-war economic conditions compounded with the then-ongoing Chinese Civil War caused severe inflationacross mainland China and in Taiwan, made worse by disastrous currency reforms and corruption. This gave way to the reconstruction process and new reforms. The KMT took control of Taiwan's monopolies that had been owned by the Japanese prior to World War II. They nationalized approximately 17% of Taiwan's GNP and voided Japanese bond certificates h...
Until the early 1970s, the Republic of China was recognized as the sole legitimate government of China by the United Nations and most Western nations; who refused to recognize the People's Republic of China on account of the Cold War. The KMT ruled Taiwan under martial law until the late 1980s, with the stated goal of being vigilant against Communist infiltration and preparing to retake mainland China (Project National Glory). Therefore, political dissent was not tolerated. T...History of Taiwan Archived 2007-06-13 at the Wayback Machinefrom FAPA (a pro-independence organization)
- to 1624
May 26, 2021 · Chiang Kai-shek's Republic of China (ROC) government, which fled the mainland to Taiwan in 1949, at first claimed to represent the whole of China, which it intended to re-occupy. It held China's...
Following the Chinese Civil War and victory of Mao Zedong 's Communist forces over the Kuomintang forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who fled to Taiwan, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 1 October 1949.
- Background and ambiguity over "China"
- Ambiguity of "Taiwan Province"
"Taiwan, China", "Taiwan, Province of China", "Taiwan Province, China" or "Chinese Taiwan" are a set of politically controversial terms that characterize Taiwan and its associated territories as a province or territory of "China". The term "Taiwan, China" is used by mainland Chinese media even though the People's Republic of China – which is widely recognized by the international community as the legitimate representative of "China" – does not exercise jurisdiction over areas controlled...
The dispute and ambiguity over the meaning of "China" and which "China" stemmed from the division of Republic of China into two Chinas at the "end" of the Chinese Civil War in 1955. The term "China" historically meant the various regimes and imperial dynasties which controlled territories in mainland Asia prior to 1911, when the imperial system was overthrown and the Republic of China was established as the first republic in Asia. In 1927, the Chinese Civil War started between the Kuomintang and
The term "Taiwan, China" is also potentially ambiguous because both the ROC and the PRC each has administratively a "Taiwan Province", Taiwan Province, Republic of China and "Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China", and neither of these provinces covers the Matsu Islands, Wuchiu, Kinmen, all of which have been retained by the Republic of China. Geographically speaking, they both refer to the same place. The existence of the extra term "Taiwan Province, PRC" is merely because of PRC's insist
The ROC is prohibited from using its official name internationally under pressure from the PRC and uses "Chinese Taipei" in other organizations. The ROC sees its use as a denial of the ROC's status as a separate sovereign state, diminishing it under "China", which implicitly is t
The confusion and fight over use of the "China" name and the lack of name recognition of "Republic of China" itself and recognition as a country are part of the reason for the supporters of Taiwan independence to push for an identity apart from "China" and for renaming the ROC an
The term is often used in Chinese media whenever the word "Taiwan" is mentioned, as in news reports and in TV shows. Particularly, when Taiwanese entertainers are on talk shows or being interviewed, the Chinese subtitles on the TV screen would always say "Taiwan, China" despite t
In 2018 in Cambodia, a gang of Chinese men yelled to a British man tattooed "Taiwan" on his forehead in Mandarin "Taiwan, China", but he was physically assaulted when yelling back "Taiwan, Taiwan".
If a place of birth on a United States passport application is written as "Taiwan, China" that cannot be shown in passports as per the One-China policy, the United States Department of State requires its officials to contact the applicant to ascertain whether "Taiwan" or "China"
- ᡨᠠᡳᠸᠠᠨ ᠵᡠᠩᡬᠣ
- Chungkuo Taiwan
- Тайвань Хятад
- Daizvanh Cunggoz
Apr 22, 2021 · Since the end of China’s civil war on the mainland and the formation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, Chinese leaders have regarded regaining control over Taiwan as a piece of...