When was the Upper Paleolithic era?
- The Upper Paleolithic Period (beginning about 40,000 years ago) was characterized by the emergence of regional stone tool industries, such as the Perigordian, Aurignacian , Solutrean , and Magdalenian of Europe as well as other localized industries of the Old World and the oldest known cultures of the New World.
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Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), according to some theories coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity in early modern humans, until the advent of the Neolithic Revolution and agriculture.
The Upper Paleolithic Period (beginning about 40,000 years ago) was characterized by the emergence of regional stone tool industries, such as the Perigordian, Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian of Europe as well as other localized industries of the Old World and the oldest known cultures of the…
The Upper Paleolithic Period (beginning about 40,000 years ago) was characterized by the emergence of regional stone tool industries, such as the Perigordian, Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian of Europe as well as other localized industries of the Old World and the oldest known cultures of the New World.
Upper-paleolithic and neolithic revolutions. As Diamond (1992, 1997) points out, for most of its history, human evolution with all of its phase transitions up to and including the first anatomically modern humans was unspectacular.
- Timeline of The Upper Paleolithic
- Tools of The Upper Paleolithic
- Upper Paleolithic Lifestyles
- Colonization During The Up
- The End of The Upper Paleolithic
- Upper Paleolithic Sites
In Europe, it is traditional to split the Upper Paleolithic into five overlapping and somewhat regional variants, based on differences between stone and bone tool assemblages. 1. Chatelperronian (~40,000-34,000 BP) 2. Aurignacian(~45,000-29,000 BP) 3. Gravettian/Upper Perigordian (29,000-22,000) 4. Solutrean (22,000-18,000 BP) 5. Magdalenian (17,000-11,000 BP) 6. Azilian/Federmesser(13,000-11,000 BP)
Stone tools of the Upper Paleolithic were primarily blade-based technology. Blades are stone pieces that are twice as long as they are wide and, generally, have parallel sides. They were used to create an astonishing range of formal tools, tools created to specific, wide-spread patterns with specific purposes. In addition, bone, antler, shell and wood were used to a great degree for both artistic and working tool types, including the first eyed needles presumably for making clothing about 21,000 years ago. The UP is perhaps best known for the cave art, wall paintings and engravings of animals and abstractions at caves such as Altamira, Lascaux, and Coa. Another development during the UP is mobiliary art (basically, mobiliary art is that which can be carried), including the famous Venus figurinesand sculpted batons of antler and bone carved with representations of animals.
People living during the Upper Paleolithic lived in houses, some built of mammoth bone, but most huts with semi-subterranean (dugout) floors, hearths, and windbreaks. Hunting became specialized, and sophisticated planning is shown by the culling of animals, selective choices by season, and selective butchery: the first hunter-gatherereconomy. Occasional mass animal killings suggest that in some places and at some times, food storage was practiced. Some evidence (different site types and the so-called schlep effect) suggest that small groups of people went on hunting trips and returned with meat to the base camps. The first domesticated animal appears during the Upper Paleolithic: the dog, companion to us humans for over 15,000 years.
Humans colonized Australia and the Americasby the end of the Upper Paleolithic and moved into hitherto unexploited regions such as deserts and tundras.
The end of the UP came about because of climate change: global warming, which affected humanity's ability to fend for itself. Archaeologists have called that period of adjustment the Azilian.See Upper Paleolithic Sites in EuropeIsrael: Qafzeh Cave, Ohalo IIEgypt:Nazlet KhaterMorocco: Grotte des Pigeons
See specific sites and issues for additional references. Cunliffe, Barry. 1998. Prehistoric Europe: An Illustrated History.Oxford University Press, Oxford. Fagan, Brian (editor). 1996 The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
The Paleolithic Age The Paleolithic Age itself is the first period of human history, lasting from the beginnings of humanity through the Ice Age sometime around 10,000 BCE.
- What Was The Upper Paleolithic Revolution?
- Human Migration
- Changes in Human Behavior
- The Emergence of Art
- Changes in Technology
- Advancement of Communication
The Upper Paleolithic Revolution occurred during the final era of the Late Stone Age between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago, just before the practice of agriculture became widespread. Research also indicates that this is the period in history when modern Homo sapiens sapiens(Cro-Magnons) began to replace the Neanderthal humans. This revolution is characterized by significant changes in human behavioral development that laid the foundation for modern human civilizations.
The modern human species began to mobilize, traveling over long distances during this time period. The earliest of these migrations was directed to present-day Australia, with humans arriving between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago. This indicates the beginning of seafaring practices. Around the same time, humans in Europe had also advanced to the latitudinal line of 61° north. This was followed by arrival to Japan approximately 30,000 years ago and to the Siberian region around 27,000 years ago. Researchers believe that before this era ended, humans crossed the Bering Land Bridge into North America and gradually migrated south.
Human behavior drastically began to change during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Though people and cultures maintained a nomadic lifestyle based on hunting and gathering, some populations began to establish permanent human settlements. These settlements are some of the first known organized, permanent civilizations. Ancient humans designed these establishments to include sleeping quarters, kitchens, butchering areas, and underground storage in order to preserve food.
Art and expression became an important part of society during this revolution. This need to communicate self-identity was expressed through the use of body decorations made of shells, animal teeth, ivory, and even ostrich eggshells. The first cave paintings, petroglyphs, and carvings also date back to this period. Archaeologists have also uncovered human and animal figurines, fashioned out of clay and stone carvings.
Stone tools evolved during this time as well, evolving from more basic to more specialized implements. Researchers have discovered many different tools and weapons from this era including knife blades, engraving instruments, arrow or spear points, and drilling or piercing pieces. Although commonly known as the Stone Age, not all of these artifacts were made of stone. Some discoveries have included bone, antler, and ivory pieces as well. During this time, humans also learned to apply heat to clay objects in order to harden them. Other technological advances were made to increase chances for survival as well. These advances resulted in fish hooks, rope, oil lamps, and eyed needles. Some scholars argue that human species were motivated to adapt old technologies in response to the changing climate of the time. Lower temperatures may have reduced the number of trees, which would have forced humans to look for alternatives to wood.
Perhaps some of the greatest contributions of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution were the establishment of long range trade routes and the creation of spoken languages. Both trade and language allowed for the exchange of goods and ideas that helped to advance human development. As humans were able to acquire new materials and communicate with humans from other cultures, they were able to reflect on their own societies and adopt new practices. It is the combination of these two contributions that allowed for cooperative communication. This cooperative communication made all of the aforementioned behavioral changes possible.
- Amber Pariona
The Paleolithic era, or the Old Stone Age, began about 2.5 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago. The end of the Paleolithic Era, which lasted from about 40,000 to about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Upper Paleolithic period.