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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 18701870 - Wikipedia

    1870 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1870th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 870th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1870s decade.

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 1870s1870s - Wikipedia

    • Politics and Wars
    • Science and Technology
    • Environment
    • Popular Culture
    • People
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Wars

    1. Dungan Revolt (1862–1877), Hui uprising against the Qing Empirewhich resulted in 20 million deaths and a Qing victory 2. Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire 3. Third Anglo-Ashanti War, also known as the "First Ashanti Expedition" (1873–1874), ended with the destruction of the royal palace at Kumasi and the signing of the Treaty of Fomena, which secured British trad...

    Colonization, decolonization, and independence

    1. The British Empire continued to grow, with the 1870s marking the beginning of the New Imperialism. 2. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire. 3. The Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. 4. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand.

    Political and social events

    1. The German Empireand Alliance System emerged. 2. Racial and economic politics at the height of America's Reconstruction Erawere bitter, pessimistic, and sometimes violent. 3. The Gilded Agebegan in 1874, lasting until 1896. 4. The First Spanish Republicrises and promptly ends (1873–1874). 5. The first Ottoman Constitution is promulgated in 1876, starting the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878). 6. Contested US presidential election of 1876

    The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bellin 1876.
    The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.
    The 6.35mm headphone jackwas invented in 1878 and is still widely used today.
    The first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edisonin 1879.

    Literature and arts

    1. Jules Verne (France) publishes Around The World in Eighty Days 2. Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Sisley organized the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") for the purpose of exhibiting their artworks independently. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Degas, were expected to forswear participation in the Salon. The organizers invited...

    Politics

    1. Eugène Borel, Director Universal Postal Union 2. Rutherford B Hayes, Elected US President in disputed election of 1876 3. Thomas W Ferry, Served as Senate Pro tempore and acting US Vice Presidentduring 1870s 4. Gustave Moynier, President International Committee of the Red Cross 5. Samuel Tilden, won popular vote but lost contested election in 1876 US presidential election

    Famous and infamous people

    1. Sam Bass, Wild West, outlaw 2. Charlie Bowdre, Wild West, outlaw/cowboy 3. Richard M. Brewer, Wild West, gunslinger/cowboy, outlaw 4. Crazy Horse, Native Americanwar leader 5. George Armstrong Custer, U. S. Armyofficer 6. Wyatt Earp, Wild West, lawman 7. E. B. Farnum, Elected official and one of the first residents of Deadwood, South Dakota 8. "Wild Bill" Hickok, Legendary Wild West, lawman, gunfighter, and entertainer 9. Doc Holliday, Legendary Wild West, gambler, gunfighter, outlaw, dent...

  3. AD 1870 Wikipedia Related Search for: AD 1870 Wikipedia 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1870th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini ( AD ) designations, the 870th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 19th ...

    • 戰爭成因
    • 戰爭經過
    • 巴黎公社
    • 戰爭影響
    • 參看條目
    • 外部链接

    1864年至1866年,普魯士為了德意志統一,先後發動了普丹戰爭及普奧戰爭,打败了丹麥王國及奥地利帝國。普魯士鐵血宰相俾斯麥的策動下,以法國阻撓德意志的利奧波德親王入繼西班牙王位而製造紛爭,並發出「埃姆斯密電」激發出普、法兩地人民的民族仇恨。 1870年,令法皇拿破侖三世對普宣戰,普魯士藉此團結德意志民族,進攻法國。

    拿破崙三世對普魯士宣戰後,隨即編成萊茵軍團,於法德邊境地帶集結。該軍團共有八個軍,約22萬人,由拿破崙三世任統帥,勒布夫為總參謀長。 法國欲先發制人,奪取法蘭克福,逼使普魯士屈服;但與此同時,普軍亦集結了三個軍團,約47萬人,由威廉一世為統帥,毛奇為總參謀長。普魯士則計劃以優勢兵力,集中向阿爾薩斯和洛林進攻,將法軍擊潰於邊境線上,再繼而進攻巴黎,逼使法國投降。 1870年8月2日,法軍於薩爾布呂肯地區向普軍進攻為開端。但到了8月4日,普軍已順利擊潰法軍,進入反攻階段。與此同時,法軍在其餘各戰場相繼失利,被逼退回國境,轉入防禦。8月中旬,法軍已被普軍一分為二,由巴贊元帥領軍的萊茵軍團共17萬人,被普軍包圍於麥茨要塞;而由拿破崙三世和麥克馬洪元帥率領的12萬餘人。8月30日,與普軍激戰後被逼退守色當。 9月1日至2日,普法兩軍於色當進行決定性的大戰,即色當會戰。9月1日上午,普軍佔領了符裡濟(英语:Flize)、棟舍裡等地,成功切斷了法軍西撤的道路,並從後堵截法軍。而在當天中午,普軍亦完成了對法軍的合圍,並以強大的火炮作出攻擊。當時下午,在法軍數次試圖突圍失敗後,拿破侖三世被逼於下午4時半派人呈信威廉一世,表示願「將他的佩劍交到陛下的手中」。 9月2日,拿破崙三世正式率8.3萬官兵向普軍投降。在這場戰役中,法軍損失12.4萬人,普軍只損失了9000多人。法國舉國嘩然。 9月4日,法國國內發生政變,在巴黎杜樂麗宮攝政中的歐珍妮皇后出逃英國,法兰西第二帝国被推翻,法兰西第三共和国成立。

    由於法國皇帝的投降導致法國一時間失去統一的政府,在短時間的混亂後成立的第三共和決定罷黜拿破崙三世繼續抗戰試圖改變戰局,因此拿破崙三世的投降失去代表性與軍事意義,普軍遂繼續朝巴黎進攻。在9月19日,普军包围巴黎。为了保卫巴黎,由资产阶级和保皇派联合组成的「国防政府」,巴黎市民也建立了194个营的国民自卫军,决定继续与普鲁士王国作战。人数达30万人的国民自卫军,由市民选举产生的国民自卫军中央委员会领导。这是一支與第三共和國对立的政治力量。 1871年1月28日,法國第三共和与普魯士签订停战协定。2月26日,草签法蘭克福條約。 3月18日,巴黎市民发动起义,仅仅一天占领了市政厅。法國政府遷往巴黎城郊的凡尔赛宫。 3月26日,巴黎人民进行投票,选举产生了巴黎公社。 5月10日,法國政府與普魯士簽署法蘭克福條約,以割讓與普魯士接壤洛林和阿爾薩斯兩省,並給予普鲁士佔領法國東北部,直到1873年9月。並賠款50億法郎的代價,換取普軍從巴黎撤軍和釋放戰爭中被俘的十萬法國戰俘,並隨即用於鎮壓巴黎公社。最後巴黎公社被法國政府消滅,成員大多被處決。

    普法戰爭以法蘭西第二帝國的垮台而告結束,法國逾千年的君主制亦宣告結束。法蘭西第三共和國成立,建立由國民議會主導的議會共和政治。 普法停戰的和約法蘭克福條約極其苛刻:規定法國割讓阿爾薩斯和摩泽尔省予德國,並賠款50億法郎。而於1871年1月18日,普皇威廉一世在法國凡爾賽宮的鏡廳登基成為德皇,宣告建立德意志帝國,他本人成為首任皇帝。遂告德意志統一,成为欧陸第一大国。 而在法国,则产生了强烈的复仇主义氛围。與過去多次打敗法國的英國相比,英國即使要求法國簽訂戰敗條約仍致力維持法國的大國地位,除了失去美洲大陸的殖民地外,法國仍然可以在歐洲大陸維持主導地位。此條約中德國對法國極具羞辱,導致此後的共和政府一直希望再通过一场战争来重奪阿尔萨斯-洛林。德法兩國於這次戰爭中結怨,為日後的第一次世界大戰,以及因法國對德國的報復導致第二次世界大戰埋下最初的伏筆。

    • 1870年7月19日–1871年5月10日, (9个月3周)
    • 法國
  4. AD:1870 View source History Talk (0) Millennium: 2nd Millennium: Centuries: 18th cent. – 19th cent. – 20th cent. Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s – ...

  5. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1870th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD)... DA: 68 PA: 35 MOZ Rank: 47

  6. Sep 01, 2013 · Description: Well, Fargo & Co. display advertisement, January, 1870: Date: 1870 (ad); September 1, 2013 (Digital Image): Source ""The Overland Monthly" January, 1870 ...

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