- Aramaic (Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ Arāmāyā; Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Imperial Aramaic: 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; square script אַרָמָיָא) is a Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria. During its three thousand year long history, Aramaic went through several stages of development.
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Aramaic nouns and adjectives are inflected to show gender, number and state. Aramaic has two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. The feminine absolute singular is often marked by the ending ה- -â. Nouns can be either singular or plural, but an additional "dual" number exists for nouns that usually come in pairs.
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Aramaic is the language of long parts of the two Bible books of Daniel and Ezra. It is the language of the Jewish Talmud. In the 12th century BC, the first speakers of Aramaic started to live in what is now Syria, Iraq and eastern Turkey. As the bureaucratic language of the Achaemenid Empire, it became the most important language in the Middle East. Jewish speakers took the language with them to North Africa and Europe. Christian speakers took the language with them to Persia, India and even China. In the 7th century AD, Aramaic stopped being the most important language in the Middle East. The Arabic language became the new important language. Aramaic is still spoken by scattered communities of Jews, Mandaeans and some Christians.Small groups of people still speak Aramaic in different parts of the Middle East. The wars of the last two centuries have made many speakers leave their homes to live in different places around the world. Today, between 500,000 and 850,000 people speak Aram...
Aramaic is not one language without any changes. Because many different people over many centuries spoke and wrote it, there are many different types of Aramaic languages, called dialects, but some of them are so different that they are like different languages. The different dialects make two groups: an Eastern group and a Western group. The division between them is around the River Euphrates. The dialects are divided also by time. Old Aramaic is the name of the oldest dialects, which only scholars learn. Middle Aramaic is the group of dialects, which are used not every day but for special things like writing and religion. Modern Aramaic is the group of dialects that is used every day by some groups.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and became a distinct script by the 8th century BC. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew. The letters all represent consonants, some of which are also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels. The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern wr
- Aramaic and Hebrew
- Chaldean misnomer
Biblical Aramaic is the form of Aramaic that is used in the books of Daniel and Ezra in the Hebrew Bible. It should not be confused with the Aramaic paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Hebrew scriptures, which are known as targumim.
As Imperial Aramaic had served as a lingua franca throughout the Ancient Near East from the second half of the 8th century BCE to the end of the 4th century BCE, linguistic contact with even the oldest stages of Biblical Hebrew, the main language of the Hebrew Bible, is easily accounted for. During the Babylonian exile of the Jews, which began in the early 6th century BCE, the language spoken by the Jews started to change from Hebrew to Aramaic, and Aramaic square script replaced the Paleo-Hebre
Biblical Hebrew is the main language of the Hebrew Bible. Aramaic accounts for only about 250 verses out of a total of over 23,000. Biblical Aramaic is closely related to Hebrew, as both are in the Northwest Semitic language family. Some obvious similarities and differences are listed below
For many centuries, from at least the time of Jerome of Stridon, Biblical Aramaic was misnamed as "Chaldean". That label remained common in early Aramaic studies, and persisted up to the nineteenth century. The "Chaldean" misnomer was consequently abandoned, when further research showed conclusively that Aramaic dialect used in Hebrew Bible was not related with ancient Chaldeans and their language.
Amharic (/ æ m ˈ h ær ɪ k / or / ɑː m ˈ h ɑːr ɪ k /; (Amharic: አማርኛ), Amarəñña, IPA: [amarɨɲːa] ()) is an Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.