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  1. Baden-Württemberg, commonly shortened to BW or BaWü, is a German state in Southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with France. With more than 11.07 million inhabitants as of 2019 across a total area of nearly 35,752 km2, it is the third-largest German state by both area and population. As a federated state, Baden-Württemberg is a partly-sovereign parliamentary republic. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of ...

    • History

      Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories...

    • Geography

      Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of...

    • Government

      The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. 1....

    • Economy

      Baden-Württemberg is a popular holiday destination. Main...

    • Education

      Baden-Württemberg is home to some of the oldest, most...

    • Stuttgart

      Stuttgart (German: [ˈʃtʊtɡaʁt] (); Swabian: Schduagert...

  2. Baden-Württemberg [ˌbaːdn̩ˈvʏrtəmbɛrk] (Abkürzung BW; amtlich Land Baden-Württemberg) ist eine parlamentarische Republik und ein teilsouveräner Gliedstaat im Südwesten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

    • 35.751,46 km²
    • Deutsch
    • Celts, Romans and Alemani
    • Duchy of Swabia
    • Hohenstaufen, Welf and Zähringen
    • Further Austria and The Palatinate
    • Baden and Württemberg Before The Reformation
    • Reformation Period
    • Peasants' War
    • Thirty Years' War
    • Swabian Circle Until The French Revolution
    • Southwest Germany Up to 1918

    The origin of the name "Württemberg" remains obscure. Scholars have universally rejected the once-popular derivation from "Wirth am Berg". Some authorities derive it from a proper name: "Wiruto" or "Wirtino," others from a Celtic place-name, "Virolunum" or "Verdunum". In any event, from serving as the name of a castle near the Stuttgart city district of Rotenberg, the name extended over the surrounding country and, as the lords of this district increased their possessions, so the name covered an ever-widening area, until it reached its present extent. Early forms included Wirtenberg, Wirtembenc and Wirtenberc. Wirtemberg was long accepted, and in the latter part of the 16th century Würtemberg and Wurttemberg appeared. In 1806, Württemberg became the official spelling, though Wurtembergalso appears frequently and occurs sometimes in official documents, and even on coins issued after that date. Württemberg's first known inhabitants, the Celts, preceded the arrival of the Suebi. In the...

    The Duchy of Swabia is to a large degree comparable to the territory of the Alemanni. The Suevi (Sueben or Swabians) belonged to the tribe of the Alemanni, reshaped in the 3rd century. The name of Swabia is also derived from them. From the 9th century on, in place of the area designation "Alemania," came the name "Schwaben" (Swabia). Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval Kingdom of the East Franks, and its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany. The most notable family to hold Swabia were the Hohenstaufen, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were also Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburgfamily in the late 13th century. With the decline of East Francia power, the House of Zähringen appeared to be ready as the local successor of the power in southw...

    Three of the noble families of the southwest attained a special importance: the Hohenstaufen, the Welf and the Zähringen. The most successful appear from the view of that time to be the Hohenstaufen, who, as dukes of Swabia from 1079 and as Frankish kings and emperors from 1138 to 1268, attained the greatest influence in Swabia. During the Middle Ages, various counts ruled the territory that now forms Baden, among whom the counts and duchy of Zähringen figure prominently. In 1112, Hermann, son of Hermann, Margrave of Verona (died 1074) and grandson of Duke Berthold II of Carinthia and the Count of Zähringen, having inherited some of the German estates of his family, called himself Margrave of Baden. The separate history of Baden dates from this time. Hermann appears to have called himself "margrave" rather than "count," because of the family connection to the margrave of Verona. His son and grandson, both called Hermann, added to their territories, which were then divided, and the l...

    Other than the Margraviate of Baden and the Duchy of Württemberg, Further Austria and the Palatinate lay on the edge of the southwestern area. Further Austria (in German: Vorderösterreich or die Vorlande) was the collective name for the old possessions of the Habsburgs in south-western Germany (Swabia), the Alsace, and in Vorarlbergafter the focus of the Habsburgs had moved to Austria. Further Austria comprised the Sundgau (southern Alsace) and the Breisgau east of the Rhine (including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1386) and included some scattered territories throughout Swabia, the largest being the margravate Burgau in the area of Augsburg and Ulm. Some territories in Vorarlberg that belonged to the Habsburgs were also considered part of Further Austria. The original homelands of the Habsburgs, the Aargau and much of the other original Habsburg possessions south of the Rhine and Lake Constance were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy after the battles of M...

    The lords of Württemberg were first named in 1092. Supposedly a Lord of Virdeberg by Luxembourg had married an heiress of the lords of Beutelsbach. The new Wirtemberg Castle (castle chapel dedicated in 1083) was the central point of a rule that extended from the Neckar and Rems valleys in all directions over the centuries. The family of Baden-Baden was very successful in increasing the area of its holdings, which after several divisions were united by the margrave Bernard Iin 1391. Bernard, a soldier of some renown, continued the work of his predecessors and obtained other districts, including Baden-Hochberg, the ruling family of which died out in 1418. During the 15th century, a war with the Count Palatine of the Rhine deprived the Margrave Charles I (died 1475) of a part of his territories, but these losses were more than recovered by his son and successor, Christoph I of Baden (illustration, right). In 1503, the family Baden-Sausenberg became extinct, and the whole of Baden was u...

    Martin Luther's theses and his writings left no one in Germany untouched after 1517. In 1503, the family Baden-Sausenberg became extinct, and the whole of Baden was united by Christoph, who, before his death in 1527, divided it among his three sons. Religious differences increased the family's rivalry. During the period of the Reformation some of the rulers of Baden remained Catholic and some became Protestants. One of Christoph's sons died childless in 1533. In 1535, his remaining sons Bernard and Ernest, having shared their brother's territories, made a fresh division and founded the lines of Baden-Baden and Baden-Pforzheim, called Baden-Durlachafter 1565. Further divisions followed, and the weakness caused by these partitions was accentuated by a rivalry between the two main branches of the family, culminating in open warfare. The long reign (1498–1550) of Duke Ulrich, who succeeded to the duchy while still a child, proved a most eventful period for the country, and many traditio...

    The living conditions of the peasants in the German southwest at the beginning of the 16th century were quite modest, but an increase in taxes and several bad harvests, with no improvement in sight, led to crisis. Under the sign of the sandal (Bundschuh), that is, the farmer's shoe that tied up with laces, rebellions broke out on the Upper Rhine, in the Bishopric of Speyer, in the Black Forest and in the upper Neckar valley at the end of the 15th century. The extortions by which he sought to raise money for his extravagant pleasures excited an uprising known as the arme Konrad (Poor Conrad), not unlike the rebellion in England led by Wat Tyler. The authorities soon restored order, and, in 1514, by the Treaty of Tübingen, the people undertook to pay the duke's debts in return for various political privileges, which in effect laid the foundation of the constitutional liberties of the country. A few years later, Ulrich quarrelled with the Swabian League, and its forces (helped by Duke...

    The longest war in German history became, with the intervention of major powers, a global war. The cause was mainly the conflict of religious denominations as a result of the Reformation. Thus, in the southwest of the empire, Catholic and Protestant princes faced one another as enemies—the Catholics (Emperor, Bavaria) united in the League, and the Protestants (Electorate Palatine, Baden-Durlach, Württemberg) in the Union. Unlike his predecessor, the next duke, Johann Frederick (1582–1628), failed to become an absolute ruler, and perforce recognised the checks on his power. During his reign, which ended in July 1628, Württemberg suffered severely from the Thirty Years' War although the duke himself took no part in it. His son and successor Eberhard III (1628–1674), however, plunged into it as an ally of France and Sweden as soon as he came of age in 1633, but after the battle of Nordlingen in 1634, Imperial troops occupied the duchy and the duke himself went into exile for some years...

    The duchy survived mainly because it was larger than its immediate neighbours. However, it was often under pressure during the Reformation from the Catholic Holy Roman Empire, and from repeated French invasions in the 17th and 18th centuries. Württemberg happened to be in the path of French and Austrian armies engaged in the long rivalry between the Bourbon and Habsburgdynasties. During the wars of the reign of Louis XIV of France, the margravate was ravaged by French troops and the towns of Pforzheim, Durlach, and Baden were destroyed. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden(died 1707), figured prominently among the soldiers who resisted the aggressions of France. It was the life's work of Charles Frederick of Baden-Durlach to give territorial unity to his country. Beginning his reign in 1738, and coming of age in 1746, this prince is the most notable of the rulers of Baden. He was interested in the development of agriculture and commerce, sought to improve education and the adminis...

    In the wars after the French Revolution in 1789, Napoleon, the emperor of the French, rose to be the ruler of the European continent. An enduring result of his policy was a new order of the southwestern German political world. When the French Revolution threatened to be exported throughout Europe in 1792, Baden joined forces against France. Its countryside was devastated in the ensuing battles. In 1796, the margrave was compelled to pay an indemnityand to cede his territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France. Fortune, however, soon returned to his side. In 1803, largely owing to the good offices of Alexander I, emperor of Russia, the margrave received the Bishopric of Konstanz, part of the Rhenish Palatinate, and other smaller districts, together with the dignity of a prince-elector. Changing sides in 1805, he fought for Napoleon, with the result that, by the peace of Pressburg in that year, he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs (see F...

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    The aurie uised tae be covered bi the historical states o Baden, includin the umwhile Prussian Hohenzollern, an Württemberg, pairt o the region o Swabie. Württemberg wis occupee'd bi the Romans in the first century AD who defendit thair poseetion thare bi constructin a (limes) rampart. Early on in the third century, the Alemanni drove the Romans ayont the Rhine an the Danube, but in thair turn thay succumbed tae the Franks unner Clovis I, the decisive battle takin place in 496. It later acome pairt o the Holy Roman Empire. Efter Warld War II, Allied forces established three federal states: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Baden (baith occupee'd bi Fraunce), an Württemberg-Baden (US-occupee'd). In 1949, thir three states became foondin members o the Federal Republic o Germany. Airticle 118 o the new German constitution, housomeivver, haed awready prepared a procedure for those states tae merge. Efter a referendum held on December 16, 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern an Bade...

    Baden-Württemberg shares its borders wi Fraunce, Swisserland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse an Bavarie. Maist o the major ceeties o Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks o the Neckar River, which runs dounstream (frae soothwast tae the centre, then northwast) throu the state first past Tübingen, then Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Heidelberg, an Mannheim). The Rhine (German: Rhein) forms the wastren mairch as well as lairge portions o the soothren border. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), the main muntain range o the state, rises east o the Rhine valley. The heich plateau o the Swabian Alb, atween the Neckar, the Black Forest an the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance (Bodensee; the mairch wi Swisserland is the middle o the lake) wi Swisserland an it shares the fuithills o the Alps (kent as the Allgäu) wi Bavarie an the Austrian Vorarlberg(but Baden-Württemberg daes no mairch Austrick ower land). The Danube (Donau) river haes its soorce in Baden-Wür...

    Admeenistration

    Baden-Württemberg is dividit intae 35 destricts (Landkreise) an 9 independent ceeties (Stadtkreise), baith grouped intae the fower Admeenistrative Destricts (Regierungsbezirke) o Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, an Tübingen. Cairt Furthermair thare are nine independent ceeties, which dae no belang tae ony destrict: A. Baden-Baden B. Freiburg C. Heidelberg D. Heilbronn E. Karlsruhe F. Mannheim G. Pforzheim H. Stuttgart I. Ulm

    Politics

    The politics o Baden-Württemberg hae tradeetionally been dominatit bi the conservative Christian Democratic Union o Germany (CDU), who till 2011 haed led aw but ane govrenment syne the establishment o the state in 1952. In the state assembly elections held on 27 Mairch 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats an centre-richt Free Democrats coalition bi a Greens-led alliance wi the Social Democrats which secured a fower seat majority in the state parliament. Till 2001 the anti-immigration...

    Awtho Baden-Württemberg is lackin naitural resoorces, the state is amang the maist prosperous states in Germany an is ane o the walthiest regions in Europe wi a tradeetionally law unemployment rate. A nummer o well-kent enterprises are heidquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH (automobile industry), Carl Zeiss AG (optics), an SAP AG (lairgest software enterprise in Europe). In spite o this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominatit bi sma an medium-sized enterprises. Awtho poor in wirkable naitural resoorces (umwhile lead, zinc, iron, siller, copper an salts) an still rural in mony auries, the region is hivily industrialized. In 2003, thare wur amaist 8,800 manufacturin enterprises wi mair nor 20 employees, but anerlie 384 wi mair nor 500. The latter category accoonts for 43% o the 1.2 million bodies employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone o the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses an a tradeetion o...

    Baden-Württemberg is hame tae some o the auldest, maist renouned an prestigious varsities in Germany, sic as the varsities o Heidelberg, Freiburg an Tübingen. It an aa contains fower o the nine German 'excellence varsities' (Heidelberg, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, an Konstanz). Ither varsity towns are Mannheim an Ulm. Furthermore, twa varsities are locatit in the state caipital Stuttgart, the Varsity o Hohenheim an the Varsity o Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg is home tae the renowned naitional film schuil Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (Film Academy Baden-Wuerttemberg). The private International University in Germany is situated in Bruchsal. Thare is anither private varsity, locatit in Friedrichshafen, Zeppelin Varsity. Furthermore, thare are mair nor a dozen Fachhochschulen, i.e. varsities of applee'd sciences, as well as Pädagogische Hochschulen, i.e. teacher training colleges, an ither institutions of tertiary eddication in Baden-Württemberg (a.o. in Aalen, Esslingen, Ludwigsburg, Nürtingen, Pf...

    Twa dialect groups o German are spoken in Baden-Württemberg in various variants: Alemannic an Franconian dialects. In central an soothren Württemberg, the Alemannic dialect o Swabian is spoken (slichtly differin even athin the aurie, e.g. atween Upper Swabie, the Swabian Alb an the central Neckar Valley o the Stuttgart region). In Sooth Baden, the local dialects are Law Alemannic an Heich Alemannic (i.e. variants o wha is an aa Swiss German). In the northren pairt o Baden, i.e. the umwhile Kurpfalz (Electoral Palatinate) wi the caipital Heidelberg, the idiom is Rhine Franconian (i.e. Palatinate German), while in the Northeast East Franconianis spoken. The same or seemilar Alemannic dialects are an aa spoken in the neighbourin regions, especially in Bavarian Swabie, Alsace (Alsatian), German-speakin Swisserland (Swiss German) an the Austrian Vorarlberg, while the ither Franconian dialects range frae the Netherlands ower the Rhineland, Lorraine an Hesse up tae northren Bavarie Franconie.

    The population o Baden-Württemberg is 10,749,755 (2008), o which 5,466,966 are female an 5,282,789 are male, tot population up 0.10 per cent ower a year earlier. This wis due tae mair births than daiths. In 2006, the birth rate wis 8.61 per 1000, lawer than that of 8.80 per 1000 in 2005. The daith rate decreased frae 8.80 per 1000 in 2005 tae 8.60 per 1000 in 2006. In 2008, nearly 14.87 percent o the population unner the age o 15, fell frae 15.13 per cent ower a previous year. The proportion o fowk aged 65 an ower rose frae 18.72 per cent tae 18.99 per cent. Correspondingly, the median age (aged 15–64) o the population fell frae 66.15 tae 66.14 ower the same period. The ratio o fowk aged unner 15 an aged 65 an ower tae the population o wirkin age (aged 15–64), the owerall dependency ratio is 512 per 1000 in 2008. The sex ratio o tot population is 0.966 male(s)/female.

    Philip Cooke, Kevin Morgan (1998). The Associational Economy: Firms, Regions, and Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780198296591.

    • 35751.65 km² (13,803.79 sq mi)
    • (Greens)
    • Geografia Fisica
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    • Galleria d'immagini
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    Lo stato confina con la Svizzera (cantoni Basilea Città, Basilea Campagna, Argovia, Zurigo, Sciaffusa e Turgovia) a sud, la Francia (Alsazia) a ovest, e con gli stati tedeschi di Renania-Palatinato a ovest, Assia a nord e Baviera a est. Le sue città principali comprendono Stoccarda (Stuttgart), Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Friburgo (Freiburg im Breisgau), Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Ulma (Ulm), Tubinga (Tübingen), Pforzheim e Reutlingen. Il Reno traccia il confine occidentale e gran parte di quello meridionale. A est del Reno si trova la Foresta Nera (Schwarzwald), la principale catena montuosa dello stato. A sud il Baden-Württemberg condivide con la Svizzera i piedi delle Alpi e il lago di Costanza (Bodensee). La sorgente del Danubiosi trova in questo stato. Il massiccio del Giura, Schwäbische Alb in tedesco, si estende dal lago di Costanza occidentale attraverso il Baden-Württemberg fino al Nördlinger Ries lungo una fascia di territorio lunga circa 220 km e larga 50 km. Venendo da nord il Giur...

    Le prime testimonianze dell'uomo in questa regione sono molto remote nel tempo, essendo stati rinvenuti sia scheletri di uomini di Neanderthalche Sapiens: tuttavia, è in una zona del Giura Svevo che sono stati rinvenuti alcuni tra i più antichi manufatti umani (piccole sculture e flauti) mai rinvenuti, risalenti a circa 40 000 anni fa. Dopo l'avvento dell'agricoltura (9 000 anni fa) con la fine dell'era glaciale, la popolazione divenne stanziale e vide l'avvicendarsi di varie popolazioni, celtiche e germaniche, che hanno lasciato molte testimonianze materiali di una civiltà che disponeva di una tecnologia e società avanzata. La zona meridionale della regione conobbe, infine, la dominazione romana: la zona di influenza romana era delimitata dal Limes, un confine fortificato che cambiò più volte la sua posizione e le cui tracce sono in alcune zone visibili ancora oggi. In epoca romana la regione, chiamata Agri Decumates, faceva parte della provincia Germania superiore, confinante a es...

    Nel 2019 il 32,3% degli abitanti dichiarava di appartenere alla Chiesa cattolica e il 27,7% alla Chiesa evangelica in Germania.

    Il Baden-Württemberg ha una economia ricca e moderna, la terza in Germania per contributo al prodotto interno lordo, e il suo reddito pro capite supera del 29 per cento la media europea. Insieme a Lombardia, Catalogna e Rhône-Alpes è uno dei cosiddetti "quattro motori dell'Europa", e costituisce una forza economica trainante per il resto dell'Unione europea (come del resto, anche la vicina Baviera). Molte sue aziende sono di dimensioni medie e piccole, ma anche molto innovative e con un'ampia gamma di produzioni. Vi è una modesta attività agricola e mineraria (piombo, zinco, ferro, argento, rame, sali) nei centri più piccoli, ma il reddito è fornito in gran parte dall'industria e dai servizi. Nel 2003 la regione contava 8 800 imprese industriali con più di 20 dipendenti, e solo 384 di queste avevano almeno cinquecento addetti. Le aziende maggiori occupano il 43% dei 1.2 milioni di dipendenti dall'industria, e producono quasi un terzo del reddito locale. Il Baden-Württemberg fornisce...

    Il Baden-Württemberg è diviso in 35 circondari (Landkreise), raggruppati in quattro distretti governativi (Regierungsbezirke): Friburgo (Freiburg im Breisgau), Karlsruhe, Stoccarda (Stuttgart), Tubinga. Map Ci sono, inoltre, nove città extracircondariali, che non appartengono ad alcun circondario:

    Wikimedia Commons contiene immagini o altri file su Baden-Württemberg
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    (DE) Sito ufficiale, su baden-wuerttemberg.de.
    Baden-Württemberg, su sapere.it, De Agostini.
    (IT, DE, FR) Baden-Württemberg, su hls-dhs-dss.ch, Dizionario storico della Svizzera.
    (EN) Baden-Württemberg, su Enciclopedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
    • Overview
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    • Flag and coat of arms

    Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It was created in 1945 by the United States occupation forces, after the previous states of Baden and Württemberg had been split up between the US and French occupation zones. Its capital was Stuttgart. In 1952, Württemberg-Baden merged with Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden into the present state of Baden-Württemberg.

    Württemberg-Baden consisted of the northern halves of the former states of Württemberg and Baden. The southern border of this part of the US-administered zone was set so that the autobahn connecting Karlsruhe and Munich was completely contained within the American zone. The three major subdivisions of the American zone were declared on 19 September 1945. On 24 November 1946, a new constitution was enacted and Württemberg-Baden's first parliament was elected. On 23 May 1949, the state ...

    The only minister-president of Württemberg-Baden was Reinhold Maier. Maier went on to become the first minister-president of Baden-Württemberg upon its formation in 1952. Württemberg-Baden was subdivided into two administrative districts, known as Landesbezirke. The boundaries for these two districts were taken from two former state sections that comprised Württemberg-Baden. These two districts remain largely unchanged today as the Regierungsbezirke of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe within ...

    The flag of Württemberg-Baden, adopted in 1947, was the black-red-gold tricolour flag of Germany which was later also adopted again by the new German states founded in 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The coat of arms merges elements from the two predecessor states: the red stripe on a golden field of the coat of arms of Baden and the three deer antlers of the coat of arms of Württemberg.

    • Post-World War II
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