Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity from the start of the ministry of Jesus ( c. 27–29 AD) to the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles ( c. 100) and is thus also known as the Apostolic Age . Early Christianity developed out of the eschatological ministry of Jesus.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present. Christianity originated with the ministry of Jesus , a Jewish teacher and healer who proclaimed the imminent kingdom of God and was crucified c. AD 30–33 in Jerusalem in the Roman province of Judea .
1st-century Christian texts (23 P) Pages in category "1st-century Christianity" The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total.
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Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism. An early Jewish Christian community was founded in Jerusalem under the leadership of the Pillars of the Church, namely James the Just, the brother of Jesus, Peter, and John.
- Primacy of Peter
- Portraits of Jesus
- Whole Article Needs Attention from A Secular Expert
- Duplicate Phrase
The intro of this article claims "Peter, on whom Jesus conferred primacy", and doesn't have a citation. In trying to track this down, I came across Primacy of Peter#Matthew 16:18. Am I reading that correctly that for example, Catholics interpret this as putting Peter in charge of the Church, and most Protestants don't? There's also the question of whether secular scholars find this passage to be reliable; Primacy of Peter#Primacy of Peter among the Apostles says most scholars agree Peter was the first leader of the Apostles, but it doesn't say they agree that's because Jesus put him in charge. Should we re-word the intro here to avoid this question entirely, or explain the different interpretations? If the claim stays in, it should get a citation since primacy isn't explained in the body. -- Beland (talk) 05:55, 11 February 2020 (UTC) 1. I don't know that much either about the primacy of Peter, but I do know that Peter played a prominent role in the early Jewish-Christian community....
Regarding this removal, edit-summary The topic is Jesus. Wikipedia summarizes what the relevant scholarsbip has to say about a topic. You don't expect us to throw-out any source which is not from the 1st century, do you? Joshua Jonathan -Let's talk!15:03, 19 February 2020 (UTC) 1. Rework tahc chat 15:07, 19 February 2020 (UTC) 1.1. Good! Joshua Jonathan -Let's talk!19:14, 19 February 2020 (UTC)
As someone who personally leans towards a mythicist account of the origins of Jesus, and has read enough material on other wikipedia pages and in books and other sources to have a sense that there is a great deal that is simply unknown about 1st century Christianity, but am not a scholar and am not equipped to rewrite this page with more rigorous treatment of the relevant claims and more serious citations, I just want to call attention to the issue that this page appears to largely represent a traditional Christian account of the subject, and not a modern critical one. I came here to learn more about what is known and what is not, but I find very little clear separation here between history and tradition. It may be justified to tag the whole page as having multiple issues: neutrality, needing attention from an expert, not a worldwide view of the subject, etc (though perhaps one of these could stand for all of them, for now), but I am not very experienced at Wikipedia editing and don...
The following phrase is duplicated twice in different sections: "The Didache and Shepherd of Hermas are usually placed among the writings of the Apostolic Fathers although their authors are unknown." Should one of the occasions be deleted? Dimadick (talk) 10:25, 23 August 2020 (UTC)
@Joshua Jonathan: Please articulate your objections to my edits. That the text is "sourced" is not in itself a justification for preserving it. ImTheIP (talk) 08:29, 27 December 2020 (UTC) 1. @ImTheIP: 1.1. diff, edit-summary "uncontroversial? no need for the quotes," changed 1.1. Christianity "emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine" 1.2. into 1.3. Christianity began as a Jewish sect 1.4. "emerged" points to 'arising' out of a Jewish context, whereas "began" reifies Chrsitianity somewhat as an independent entity. "Roman Palestine" provides essential information about location and context; no need to remove this. 1. 1.1. diff, edit-summary " this seem very tangential to the topic," removed 1.1. A central concern in 1st century Judaism was the covenant with God, and the status of the Jews as the chosen peopleof God. (Ehrman 2012, p.272) Many Jews believed that this covenant would be renewed with the coming of the Messiah. Jews believed the Law was given by God to guide them i...
- Worship of Jesus Christ
- Jewish Continuity
- Post-Apostolic Church
- Christianity Legalized
- Church of The Early Middle Ages
- Church of The High Middle Ages
- Church and The Italian Renaissance
- Protestant Reformation
- Print Resources
Sources for the beliefs of the apostolic community include the Gospels and New Testament Epistles. The very earliest reports are in these texts: early Christian creeds and hymns and reports about the Passion, the empty tomb, and appearances of Jesus after his Resurrection. There are reasons to suppose that they were written within a few years of the crucifixion of Jesus and came from the Jerusalem Church.
Christianity kept many practices from Jewish tradition. Christianity thought the Jewish scriptures to be sacred and used mostly the Septuagint translation of the Torah (the first five books of the Old Testament), the Hebrew Prophets and Writings (the rest of the Old Testament books), and added other texts as the New Testament. Christians professed Jesus to be the God of Israel, having taken human form, and considered Jesus to be the Messiah (Christ) who had been prophesied about in the Old Testament and so was expected by the people of Israel. Christianity continued many Judaic practices: liturgical worship, including the use of incense, an altar, a set of scriptural readings adapted from synagogue practice, use of sacred music in hymns and prayer, and a religious calendar, as well as other typical features: an exclusively male priesthood, and ascetic practices (fastingetc.).
The time when most of the apostles had died and their jobs as leaders of the Christian communities in the cities had been taken over by bishops, is called post-apostolic period. It includes the time of persecutions until Christian worship was legalized under Constantine the Great. The earliest recorded use of the term Christianity (Greek Χριστιανισμός) is from this period. The term was used by Ignatius of Antioch c.107.
The first to legalize Christianity was the Armenian king Trdat the Third, who announced it the official religion in Armenia in the year 301. Galerius issued an edict permitting the practice of the Christian religion in April of 311. In 313 Constantine I and Licinius announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan. Constantine became the first Christian emperor; he had learnt about Christianity from his mother, Helena. By 391, under the reign of Theodosius I, Christianity had become the state religion of Rome. When Christianity was legalized the Church took the same provinces for administration as the imperial government and called them dioceses. The Bishop of Rome claimed to be the highest amongst all others and chose the title pope. During this era, there were several Ecumenical Councils. These were mostly concerned with Christological disputes. The First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism and produced the Nicene Creed to define the faith. The Council of Ephesus condem...
The Church in the Early Middle Ages saw a "transformation of the Roman world" rather than a "fall of the Roman Empire". With the Muslim invasions of the seventh century, the Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) areas of Christianity began to take on distinctive shapes, and the Bishops of Rome were more interested in barbarian kings than in the Byzantine Emperors. This led to the coronation of Charlemagne as "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo IIIin Rome on Christmas Day, 800.
The High Middle Ages is the period from the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the close of the fifteenth century, which saw the fall of Constantinople (1453), the end of the Hundred Years' War (1453), the discovery of the New World (1492), and thereafter the Protestant Reformation(1515).
The Renaissance was a period of great cultural change and achievement, marked in Italy by a classical orientation and an increase of wealth through mercantile trade. The City of Rome, the Papacy, and the Papal States were all affected by the Renaissance. On the one hand, it was a time of great artistic patronage and architectural magnificence, where the Church patroned such artists as Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Bramante, Raphael, Fra Angelico, Donatello, and da Vinci. On the other hand, wealthy Italian families often secured episcopal offices, including the papacy, for their own members, some of whom were known for immorality, such as Alexander VI and Sixtus IV.
In the early 16th century, movements were begun by two theologians, Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli, that aimed to reform the Church. Unlike earlier reformers they considered the root of corruptions to be doctrinal (rather than simply a matter of moral weakness or lack of ecclesiastical discipline) and thus they aimed to change contemporary doctrines to fit their idea of the "true gospel". The Protestant Reformation is so called because the movement's leaders "protested" against the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the pope, essentially electing to institute their reforms separately from it. The term "Protestant", however, was not originally used by these leaders; instead, they called themselves "evangelical", emphasizing the "return to the true gospel (Greek: euangelion)". The beginning of the Protestant Reformation is generally identified with Martin Luther and the posting of the 95 Theses in 1517 in Wittenburg, Germany. Early protest was against corruptions such as simony, episcopal...
The Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, was the response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation. The essence of the Counter-Reformation was a renewed conviction in traditional practices and the upholding of Catholic doctrine as the source of ecclesiastic and moral reform, and the answer to halting the spread of Protestantism. Thus it experienced the founding of new religious orders, such as the Jesuits, the establishment of seminaries for the proper training of priests, renewed worldwide missionary activity, and the development of new yet orthodox forms of spirituality, such as that of the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. The entire process was spearheaded by the Council of Trent, which clarified and reasserted doctrine, issued dogmatic definitions, and produced the Roman Catechism. Though Ireland, Spain, France, and elsewhere featured significantly in the Counter-Reformation, its heart was Italy and the various popes of the time, who es...Fuller, Reginald H. (1965). The Foundations of New Testament Christology. New York: Scribners. ISBN 978-0-684-15532-6.González, Justo L. (1984). The Story of Christianity: Vol. 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-063315-8.González, Justo L. (1985). The Story of Christianity, Vol. 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-063316-5.Latorette, Kenneth Scott (1975). A History of Christianity, Volume 1: Beginnings to 1500 (Revised). San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0060649524.
See also: Rejection of Jesus, Biblical law in Christianity, Sabbath in Christianity , and Paul of Tarsus and Judaism. The early Christians in the first century believed Yahweh to be the Only true God, the God of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the Messiah ( Christ) prophesied in the Jewish Scriptures.
Beginning of Christianity in India. Mid-1st century – Wall niche, from garden in Pompeii, is made. It is now kept at Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, England. Mid-1st century – Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii, is made.
- Apostolic Age
- Jewish Christianity
- Emerging Church – Mission to The Gentiles
- Development of The Biblical Canon
- Early Orthodox Writings – Apostolic Fathers
- Split of Early Christianity and Judaism
Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as "The Way" (ἡ ὁδός), probably coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord."[web 1][web 2][note 1] Other Jews also called them "the Nazarenes," while another Jewish-Christian sect called themselves "Ebionites" (lit. "the poor"). According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" (Greek: Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Greek: Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD.
The earliest followers of Jesus were a sect of apocalyptic Jewish Christians within the realm of Second Temple Judaism. The early Christian groups were strictly Jewish, such as the Ebionites, and the early Christian community in Jerusalem, led by James the Just, brother of Jesus. Christianity "emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine" in the syncretistic Hellenistic world of the first century AD, which was dominated by Roman law and Greek culture. Hellenistic culture had a profound imp...
Life and ministry of Jesus
Christian sources, such as the four canonical gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the New Testament apocrypha[web 9], include detailed stories about Jesus, but scholars differ on the historicity of specific episodes described in the Biblical accounts of Jesus. The only two events subject to "almost universal assent" are that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. The Gospels are theological documents, which "provide informatio...
Traditionally, the years following Jesus until the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles is called the Apostolic Age, after the missionary activities of the apostles. According to the Acts of the Apostles (the historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles is disputed), the Jerusalem church began at Pentecost with some 120 believers, in an "upper room," believed by some to be the Cenacle, where the apostles received the Holy Spiritand emerged from hiding following the death and resurrection of Jesus to preach and spread his message. The New Testament writings depict what orthodox Christian churches call the Great Commission, an event where they describe the resurrected Jesus Christ instructing his disciples to spread his eschatological message of the coming of the Kingdom of God to all the nations of the world. The most famous version of the Great Commission is in Matthew 28 (Matthew 28:16–20), where on a mountain in Galilee Jesus calls on his followers to make disciples of a...
After the death of Jesus, Christianity first emerged as a sect of Judaism as practiced in the Roman province of Judea. The first Christians were all Jews, who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology. Among other schools of thought, some Jews regarded Jesus as Lord and resurrected messiah, and the eternally existing Son of God,[note 8] expecting the second coming of Jesus and the start of God's Kingdom. They pressed fellow Jews to prepare for these events and to follow "the way" of the Lord. They believed Yahweh to be the only true God, the god of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the messiah (Christ), as prophesied in the Jewish scriptures, which they held to be authoritative and sacred. They held faithfully to the Torah,[note 9] including acceptance of Gentile converts based on a version of the Noachide laws.[note 10]
With the start of their missionary activity, they also started to attract proselytes, Gentiles who were fully or partly converted to Judaism.[note 11]
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred sporadically over a period of over two centuries. For most of the first three hundred years of Christian history, Christians were able to live in peace, practice their professions, and rise to positions of responsibility.Sporadic persecution took place as the result of local pagan populations putting pressure on the imperial authorities to take action against the Christians in their midst, who were thought to bring misfortune by their refusal to honour the gods. Only for approximately ten out of the first three hundred years of the church's history were Christians executed due to orders from a Roman emperor. The first persecution of Christians organised by the Roman government took place under the emperor Nero in 64 AD after the Great Fire of Rome. There was no empire-wide persecution of Christians until the reign of Decius in the third century.[web 20] The Edict of Serdica was issued in 311 by the Roman emperor Galerius, offici...
In an ancient culture before the printing press and the majority of the population illiterate, most early Christians likely did not own any Christian texts. Much of the original church liturgical services functioned as a means of learning Christian theology. A final uniformity of liturgical services may have become solidified after the church established a Biblical canon, possibly based on the Apostolic Constitutions and Clementine literature. Clement (d. 99) writes that liturgies are "to be celebrated, and not carelessly nor in disorder" but the final uniformity of liturgical services only came later, though the Liturgy of St Jamesis traditionally associated with James the Just. Books not accepted by Pauline Christianity are termed biblical apocrypha, though the exact list varies from denomination to denomination.
The Church Fathers are the early and influential Christian theologians and writers, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. The earliest Church Fathers, within two generations of the Twelve apostles of Christ, are usually called Apostolic Fathers for reportedly knowing and studying under the apostles personally. Important Apostolic Fathers include Clement of Rome (d. AD 99), Ignatius of Antioch (d. AD 98 to 117) and Polycarp of Smyrna (AD 69–155). Their writings include the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistles of Clement. The Didache and Shepherd of Hermas are usually placed among the writings of the Apostolic Fathers although their authors are unknown. Taken as a whole, the collection is notable for its literary simplicity, religious zeal and lack of Hellenistic philosophy or rhetoric. They contain early thoughts on the organisation of the Christian ekklēsia, and witness the development of an early Church structure. In...
Split with Judaism
There was a slowly growing chasm between Gentile Christians, and Jews and Jewish Christians, rather than a sudden split. Even though it is commonly thought that Paul established a Gentile church, it took a century for a complete break to manifest. Growing tensions led to a starker separation that was virtually complete by the time Jewish Christians refused to join in the Bar Khokba Jewish revolt of 132. Certain events are perceived as pivotal in the growing rift between Christianity and Judai...
Later rejection of Jewish Christianity
Jewish Christians constituted a separate community from the Pauline Christians but maintained a similar faith. In Christian circles, Nazarene later came to be used as a label for those faithful to Jewish Law, in particular for a certain sect. These Jewish Christians, originally the central group in Christianity, generally holding the same beliefs except in their adherence to Jewish law, were not deemed heretical until the dominance of orthodoxy in the 4th century. The Ebionites may have been...
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