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  1. Copenhagen - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen

    Copenhagen (Danish: København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of 1 January 2020, the city had a population of 794,128 with 632,340 in Copenhagen Municipality, 104,305 in Frederiksberg Municipality, 42,989 in Tårnby Municipality, and 14,494 in Dragør Municipality.

    • 91 m (299 ft)
    • Denmark
    • 1050–1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450, 2500
    • Capital
  2. Copenhagen - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen

    From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Copenhagen is the capital city of Denmark. It is also the largest city in Denmark. In 2014, 1,246,611 people lived in the urban area.

    • 86.39 km² (33.36 sq mi)
    • Denmark
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  4. Copenhagen (disambiguation) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen_(film)

    Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark and can refer to the city proper, as well as several geographical and administrative divisions in and around the city: Copenhagen Municipality, the largest of the municipalities making up the city of Copenhagen Copenhagen County, the former county of Copenhagen, separate from the municipality

  5. Copenhagen (Folketing constituency) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen_(Folketing

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Copenhagen (Danish: København) is one of the 12 multi-member constituencies of the Folketing, the national legislature of Denmark. The constituency was established in 2007 following the public administration structural reform.

    • 795,080 (2020)
    • Capital
  6. Copenhagen interpretation - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen_interpretation
    • Background
    • Origin and Use of The Term
    • Principles
    • Nature of The Wave Function
    • Acceptance Among Physicists
    • Consequences
    • Criticism
    • Alternatives
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Starting in 1900, investigations into atomic and subatomic phenomena forced a revision to the basic concepts of classical physics. However, it was not until a quarter-century had elapsed that the revision reached the status of a coherent theory. During the intervening period, now known as the time of the "old quantum theory", physicists worked with approximations and heuristic corrections to classical physics. Notable results from this period include Max Planck's calculation of the blackbody radiation spectrum, Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, Einstein and Peter Debye's work on the specific heat of solids, Niels Bohr and Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen's proof that classical physics cannot account for diamagnetism, Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom and Arnold Sommerfeld's extension of the Bohr model to include relativistic effects. From 1922 through 1925, this method of heuristic corrections encountered increasing difficulties; for example, the Bohr–Sommerfeld...

    Werner Heisenberg had been an assistant to Niels Bohr at his institute in Copenhagen during part of the 1920s, when they helped originate quantum mechanical theory. In 1929, Heisenberg gave a series of invited lectures at the University of Chicago explaining the new field of quantum mechanics. The lectures then served as the basis for his textbook, The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory, published in 1930.In the book's preface, Heisenberg wrote: The term 'Copenhagen interpretation' suggests something more than just a spirit, such as some definite set of rules for interpreting the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, presumably dating back to the 1920s. However, no such text exists, and the writings of Bohr and Heisenberg contradict each other on several important issues. It appears that the particular term, with its more definite sense, was coined by Heisenberg in the 1950s, while criticizing alternative "interpretations" (e.g., David Bohm's) that had been developed....

    There is no uniquely definitive statement of the Copenhagen interpretation. The term encompasses the views developed by a number of scientists and philosophers during the second quarter of the 20th century. Bohr and Heisenberg never totally agreed on how to understand the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, and Bohr distanced himself from what he considered Heisenberg's more subjective interpretation.Bohr offered an interpretation that is independent of a subjective observer, or measurement, or collapse; instead, an "irreversible" or effectively irreversible process causes the decay of quantum coherence which imparts the classical behavior of "observation" or "measurement". Different commentators and researchers have associated various ideas with it. Asher Peres remarked that very different, sometimes opposite, views are presented as "the Copenhagen interpretation" by different authors.[note 2] N. David Mermin coined the phrase "Shut up and calculate!" to summarize Copenhag...

    A wave function is a mathematical entity that provides a probability distribution for the outcomes of each possible measurement on a system. Knowledge of the quantum state together with the rules for the system's evolution in time exhausts all that can be predicted about the system's behavior. Generally, Copenhagen-type interpretations deny that the wave function provides a directly apprehensible image of an ordinary material body or a discernible component of some such,or anything more than a theoretical concept.

    During the 1930s and 1940s, views about quantum mechanics attributed to Bohr and emphasizing complementarity became commonplace among physicists. Textbooks of the time generally maintained the principle that the numerical value of a physical quantity is not meaningful or does not exist until it is measured.:248 Prominent physicists associated with Copenhagen-type interpretations included Lev Landau, Wolfgang Pauli, Rudolf Peierls, Asher Peres, and Léon Rosenfeld. Throughout much of the 20th century, the Copenhagen tradition had overwhelming acceptance among physicists. According to a very informal poll (some people voted for multiple interpretations) conducted at a quantum mechanics conference in 1997,the Copenhagen interpretation remained the most widely accepted label that physicists applied to their own views. A similar result was found in a poll conducted in 2011.

    The nature of the Copenhagen interpretation is exposed by considering a number of experiments and paradoxes.

    Incompleteness and indeterminism

    Einstein was an early and persistent critic of the Copenhagen school. Bohr and Heisenberg advanced the position that no physical property could be understood without an act of measurement, while Einstein refused to accept this. Abraham Pais recalled a walk with Einstein when the two discussed quantum mechanics: "Einstein suddenly stopped, turned to me and asked whether I really believed that the moon exists only when I look at it." While Einstein did not doubt that quantum mechanics was a cor...

    The "shifty split"

    Much criticism of Copenhagen-type interpretations has focused on the need for a classical domain where observers or measuring devices can reside, and the imprecision of how the boundary between quantum and classical might be defined. John Bell called this the "shifty split". As typically portrayed, Copenhagen-type interpretations involve two different kinds of time evolution for wave functions, the deterministic flow according to the Schrödinger equation and the probabilistic jump during meas...

    The ensemble interpretation is similar; it offers an interpretation of the wave function, but not for single particles. The consistent histories interpretation advertises itself as "Copenhagen done right". Although the Copenhagen interpretation is often confused with the idea that consciousness causes collapse, it defines an "observer" merely as that which collapses the wave function. More recently, interpretations inspired by quantum information theory like QBism and relational quantum mechanicshave attracted support. Under realism and determinism, if the wave function is regarded as ontologically real, and collapse is entirely rejected, a many worlds theory results. If wave function collapse is regarded as ontologically real as well, an objective collapse theory is obtained. Bohmian mechanics shows that it is possible to reformulate quantum mechanics to make it deterministic, at the price of making it explicitly nonlocal. It attributes not only a wave function to a physical system...

    Folse, H.; Faye, J., eds. (2017). Niels Bohr and the Philosophy of Physics. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-350-03511-9. OCLC 1006344483.
    van der Waerden, B. L., ed. (2007). Sources of Quantum Mechanics. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-45892-2. OCLC 920280519.
    Fine, Arthur (1986). The Shaky Game: Einstein, Realism, and the Quantum Theory. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-24946-9. OCLC 988425945.
    Wheeler, J. A.; Zurek, W. H., eds. (1983). Quantum Theory and Measurement. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08316-2. OCLC 865311103.
  7. Battle of Copenhagen (1807) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Battle_of_Copenhagen_(1807)
    • Overview
    • Background
    • Bombardment
    • Aftermath
    • Ships involved
    • Ships surrendered

    The Second Battle of Copenhagen was a British bombardment of the Danish capital, Copenhagen, in order to capture or destroy the Dano-Norwegian fleet during the Napoleonic Wars. The incident led to the outbreak of the Anglo-Russian War of 1807, which ended with the Treaty of Örebro in 1812. Britain's first response to Napoleon's Continental system was to launch a major naval attack on Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was under heavy French pressure to pledge its fleet to...

    Despite the defeat and loss of many ships in the first Battle of Copenhagen in 1801, Denmark-Norway, possessing Jutland, Norway, Greenland, Schleswig-Holstein, Iceland, and several smaller territories, still maintained a considerable navy. The majority of the Danish Army, under the Crown Prince, was at this time defending the southern border against possible attack from the French. There was concern in Britain that Napoleon might try to force Denmark to close the Baltic Sea to British ships, per

    The British troops under General Lord Cathcart were organised as follows

    The news of what happened did not reach Canning until 16 September. He wrote to Rev. William Leigh: "Did I not tell you we would save Plumstead from bombardment?" One week later he wrote: "Nothing ever was more brilliant, more salutary or more effectual than the success " and Perceval expressed similar sentiments. The Times said that the confiscation of the Danish fleet was "a bare act of self-preservation" and noticed the short distance between Denmark and Ireland or north-east Scotland. Willia

    126 ships, large and small, were involved at Copenhagen, included those named below. In addition to those named here, there were another three dozen smaller frigates, sloops, bomb vessels, gun-brigs and schooners, and a very large number of merchant or requisitioned ships carrying troops or supplies. The following ships sailed with Gambier from England on 26 July 1807: 1. Prince of Wales 98 2. Pompee 74 3. Centaur 74 4. Ganges 74 5. Alfred 74 6. Brunswick 74 7. Captain 74 8. Goliath 74 9. Hercul

    The Danes surrendered the following warships on 7 September under the terms of the capitulation following the attack:

    • British victory, Danish navy surrendered to the United Kingdom
  8. Copenhagen Airport - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Copenhagen_Airport
    • Overview
    • History
    • Facilities
    • Other facilities

    Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, the rest of Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden including Scania. It is the largest airport in the Nordic countries with close to 30.3 million passengers in 2019 and one of the oldest international airports in Europe. It is the third-busiest airport in Northern Europe, and the busiest for international travel in Scandinavia. The airport is located on the island of Amager...

    The airport was inaugurated 20 April 1925 and was one of the first civil airports in the world. It consisted of a large, impressive terminal built of wood, a couple of hangars, a balloon mast, a hydroplane landing stage and a few grassy meadows that could be used as runways. The grass on the runways was kept short by sheep, which were shepherded away before take-offs and landings. From 1932 to 1939, takeoffs and landings increased from 6,000 to 50,000 and passenger number increased to 72,000. Be

    Copenhagen Airport has two terminals for check-in, Terminals 2 and 3, which handle all flights and share a common airside passenger concourse as well as the arrivals section which houses customs and baggage claim and is physically located in Terminal 3. The airside is reached thr

    Despite the short distance to the city centre, approaches to, and departures from, the airport are above water due to the heading of the dual parallel runway system. Those runways point to the Øresund strait, close in both directions. The supplementary runway oriented ...

    The SAS traffic office resides at Copenhagen Airport South and in Dragør, Dragør Municipality together with a VIP-terminal. The VIP-terminal is actually the first terminal building, from the 1920s. It was moved about 2 km during the 1990s. In 2015, Boeing opened a maintenance, repair, and operations facility at CPH, as proximity to daily operations is more important than high wages when checks have to be made every 1,000 flight hours.

  9. Copenhagen - Wikitravel

    wikitravel.org › en › Copenhagen

    May 31, 2021 · Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital of Denmark and what a million Danes call home. This "friendly old girl of a town" is big enough to be a metropolis with shopping, culture and nightlife par excellence, yet still small enough to be intimate, safe and easy to navigate.

  10. Tivoli (Copenhagen) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tivoli_Gardens
    • Overview
    • History
    • Rides
    • Performing arts

    With 4.6 million visitors in 2017, Tivoli is the second-most popular seasonal theme park in the world after Europa-Park. Tivoli is the fifth-most visited theme park in Europe, behind Disneyland Park, Europa-Park, Walt Disney Studios Park and Efteling. It is located in downtown Copenhagen, next to the Central rail station.

    The amusement park was first called "Tivoli & Vauxhall"; "Tivoli" alluding to the Jardin de Tivoli in Paris, and "Vauxhall" alluding to Vauxhall Gardens in London. It is mentioned in various books, such as Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, and was also used prominently in the 1961 science fiction film Reptilicus.

    The park is best known for its wooden roller coaster, Rutschebanen, or as some people call it, Bjergbanen, built in 1914. It is one of the world's oldest wooden roller coasters that is still operating today. An operator controls the ride by braking so that it does not gain too much speed during descent of the hills. It is an ACE Coaster Classic. Another roller coaster, The Demon, features an Immelmann loop, a vertical loop, and a zero-G roll all during the ride time of just one minute and forty

    Besides the rides, Tivoli Gardens also serve as a venue for various performing arts & as an active part of the cultural scene in Copenhagen.

    • 15 August 1843; 177 years ago
    • Tivoli A/S
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