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  1. Diarrhea - Wikipedia

    Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person.. Acute diarrhea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter from the bowel, lasting less than 14 days, by World Gastroenterology Organization.

    • Usually infection (viral, bacterial, parasitic)
    • Loose frequent bowel movements, dehydration
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  3. Travelers' diarrhea - Wikipedia's_diarrhea

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling. [2] [3] It may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating. [3]

    • Travellers' diarrhoea, tourist diarrhea, traveler's dysentery
    • Unformed stool while traveling, fever, abdominal cramps
  4. Every year in the world, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under age 5. In developing countries, diarrhea is also one of the most common causes of malnutrition in children under age 5. When children die from diarrhea, the cause is often dehydration (losing too much water from the body).

  5. Dysentery - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Mechanism
    • Diagnosis
    • Prevention
    • Treatment

    Dysentery is a type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood. Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and a feeling of incomplete defecation. Complications may include dehydration. The cause of dysentery is usually the bacteria Shigella, in which case it is known as shigellosis, or the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Other causes may include certain chemicals, other bacteria, other protozoa, or parasitic worms. It may spread between people. Risk factors include contaminatio

    The most common form of dysentery is bacillary dysentery, which is typically a mild sickness, causing symptoms normally consisting of mild gut pains and frequent passage of stool or diarrhea. Symptoms normally present themselves after 1–3 days, and are usually no longer present after a week. The frequency of urges to defecate, the large volume of liquid feces ejected, and the presence of blood, mucus, or pus depends on the pathogen causing the disease. Temporary lactose intolerance can ...

    Dysentery results from bacterial, or parasitic infections. Viruses do not generally cause the disease. These pathogens typically reach the large intestine after entering orally, through ingestion of contaminated food or water, oral contact with contaminated objects or hands, and so on. Each specific pathogen has its own mechanism or pathogenesis, but in general, the result is damage to the intestinal linings, leading to the inflammatory immune responses. This can cause elevated physical temperat

    A diagnosis may be made by taking a history and doing a brief examination. Dysentery should not be confused with hematochezia, which is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools.

    Efforts to prevent dysentery include hand washing and food safety measures while traveling in areas of high risk.

    Dysentery is managed by maintaining fluids using oral rehydration therapy. If this treatment cannot be adequately maintained due to vomiting or the profuseness of diarrhea, hospital admission may be required for intravenous fluid replacement. In ideal situations, no antimicrobial therapy should be administered until microbiological microscopy and culture studies have established the specific infection involved. When laboratory services are not available, it may be necessary to administer a combi

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Virus classification and structure
    • Epidemiology
    • Pathogenesis
    • Clinical signs
    • Diagnosis

    Bovine viral diarrhea, bovine viral diarrhoea or mucosal disease, and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea, is an economically significant disease of cattle that is found in the majority of countries throughout the world. Worldwide reviews of the economically assessed production losses and intervention programs incurred by BVD infection have been published. The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus, is a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. BVD infection

    BVDVs are a members of the genus Pestivirus, belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Other members of this genus cause Border disease and classical swine fever which cause significant financial loss to the livestock industry. Pestiviruses are small, spherical, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of 40 to 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of a single, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 12.3 kb. RNA synthesis is catalyzed by the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polym

    BVD is considered one of the most significant infectious diseases in the livestock industry worldwide due to its high prevalence, persistence and clinical consequences. In Europe the prevalence of antibody positive animals in countries without systematic BVD control is between 60 and 80%. Prevalence has been determined in individual countries and tends to be positively associated with stocking density of cattle. BVDV-1 strains are predominant in most parts of the world, whereas BVDV-2 represents

    Following viral entry and contact with the mucosal lining of the mouth or nose, replication occurs in epithelial cells. BVDV replication has a predilection for the palatine tonsils, lymphoid tissues and epithelium of the oropharynx. Phagocytes take up BVDV or virus-infected cells

    Fetal infection is of most consequence as this can result in the birth of a persistently infected neonate. The effects of fetal infection with BVDV are dependent upon the stage of gestation at which the dam suffers acute infection. BVDV infection of the dam prior to conception, a

    BVD virus can be maintained as a chronic infection within some immunoprivileged sites following transient infection. These sites include ovarian follicles, testicular tissues, central nervous system and white blood cells. Cattle with chronic infections elicit a significant immune

    BVDV infection has a wide manifestation of clinical signs including fertility issues, milk drop, pyrexia, diarrhoea and fetal infection. Occasionally, a severe acute form of BVD may occur. These outbreaks are characterized by thrombocytopenia with high morbidity and mortality. However, clinical signs are frequently mild and infection insidious, recognised only by BVDV’s immunosuppressive effects perpetuating other circulating infectious diseases.

    Various diagnostic tests are available for the detection of either active infection or evidence of historical infection. The method of diagnosis used also depends upon whether the vet is investigating at an individual or a herd level.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome - Wikipedia

    Classification. IBS can be classified as diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D), constipation-predominant (IBS-C), with alternating stool pattern (IBS-A) or pain-predominant. In some individuals, IBS may have an acute onset and develop after an infectious illness characterized by two or more of: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or positive stool culture.

  8. Cholera - Wikipedia

    Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.

  9. Gastroenteritis - Wikipedia

    Antimotility medication has a theoretical risk of causing complications, and although clinical experience has shown this to be unlikely, these drugs are discouraged in people with bloody diarrhea or diarrhea that is complicated by fever. Loperamide, an opioid analogue, is commonly used for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea.

  10. Diarrhea: 15 Common Causes and How To Treat It

    Diarrhea is loose and watery stool during a bowel movement. It’s said that you “have diarrhea” when it happens more than three times in a day. Learn more about the causes, symptoms, and ...

  11. Diarrhea - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
    • Overview
    • Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Complications
    • Prevention

    Diarrhea — loose, watery and possibly more-frequent bowel movements — is a common problem.Luckily, diarrhea is usually short-lived, lasting no more than a few days. But, when diarrhea lasts for weeks, it usually indicates that's there's another problem. If you have diarrhea for weeks or longer, you may have a condition such as irritable bowel disorder, or a more serious disorder, such as a persistent infection or inflammatory bowel disease.

    Signs and symptoms associated with diarrhea may include: 1. Loose, watery stools 2. Abdominal cramps 3. Abdominal pain 4. Fever 5. Blood in the stool 6. Mucus in the stool 7. Bloating 8. Nausea 9. Urgent need to have a bowel movement

    A number of diseases and conditions can cause diarrhea, including 1. Viruses. Viruses that can cause diarrhea include Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhea. 2. Bacteria and parasites. Contaminated food or water can transmit bacteria and parasites to your body. When traveling in developing countries, diarrhea caused by bacteria and parasites is often called traveler's diarrhea. Clostridium difficile is another type of bacter...

    Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which can be life-threatening if untreated. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weakened immune systems.If you have signs of serious dehydration, seek medical help.

    Wash your hands to prevent the spread of viral diarrhea. To ensure adequate hand-washing: 1. Wash frequently. Wash your hands before and after preparing food. Wash your hands after handling uncooked meat, using the toilet, changing diapers, sneezing, coughing and blowing your nose. 2. Lather with soap for at least 20 seconds. After putting soap on your hands, rub your hands together for at least 20 seconds. This is about as long as it takes to sing \\"Happy Birthday\\" twice through. 3. Use hand...