- Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, of the tetracycline class. Like other agents of this class, it either slows or kills bacteria by inhibiting protein production. It kills malaria by targeting a plastid organelle, the apicoplast. Doxycycline was patented in 1957 and came into commercial use in 1967.
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Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline-class antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and certain parasites. It is used to treat bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, early Lyme disease, cholera, typhus, and syphilis.
- AU: D, US: D (Evidence of risk)
- Doryx, Doxyhexal, Doxylin among others
Doxycycline is also used as a prophylactic treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis and is effective against Yersinia pestis, the infectious agent of bubonic plague. It is also used for malaria treatment and prophylaxis, as well as treating elephantitis filariasis . 
Apr 01, 2020 · Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.. Doxycycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as acne, urinary tract infections, intestinal infections, respiratory infections, eye infections, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, periodontitis (gum disease), and others.
- Doryx, Alodox, Monodox, Oracea, Morgidox
- Tetracycline antibiotics, Miscellaneous antimalarials
Type: TetracyclinesDosage Forms: PO and IV (20mg, 50mg, 75mg, 100mg, 150mg, 25mg/5 mL)Common Trade Names: Adoxa, Avidoxy, Doryx, Monodox, Oracea, Periostat, Vibramycin
- Adult Dosing
- Pediatric Dosing
- Special Populations
- Adverse Reactions
- Antibiotic Sensitivities
1. 100mg PO/IV QD or q12h depending on severity 1.1. Variable duration
Severe Acne Vulgaris
1. 100mg PO QD 1.1. Start 100mg PO q12h x 1 day
1. 20mg PO q12h
1. >8 years old 2. 2.2mg/kg PO/IV QD 2.1. Start: 2.2mg/kg PO/IV q12h x 1 day 2.2. Max 100mg/kg/dose 2.3. Frequency for severe infections is q12h
Severe Acne Vulgaris
1. >8 years old 2. 2.2mg/kg PO/IV QD 2.1. Start: 2.2mg/kg PO/IV q12h x 1 day 2.2. Max 100mg/kg/dose
1. >8 years old 2. 2-4mg/kg/day PO divided q12h x7-10 daysPregnancy: DLactation: Possibly Unsafe; consider alternativesRenal Dosing Adult and PediatricHepatic Dosing Adult and PediatricAllergy to class/drugPregnancyAge <8 yearsCaution:
1. Tooth discoloration children <8 years old (Controversial) 2. Photosensitivity 3. C. Diff diarrhea 4. Hypersensitivity reaction 5. Skin reaction 6. Vasculitis 7. Pericarditis 8. Autoimmune hepatitis 9. Hepatotoxicity 10. Nephrotoxicity 11. Esophagitis/ulcer 12. Pancreatitis 13. Thrombocytopenia 14. Neutropenia 15. Hemolytic anemia 16. Pseudotumor cerebri 17. Bulging fontanelles 18. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction 19. Fetal harm
1. Headache 2. Nausea 3. Dyspepsia 4. Arthralgia 5. Diarrhea 6. Rash 7. Dysmenorrhea 8. Photosensitivity 9. Vulvovaginal candidiasis 10. Skin discoloration 11. Elevated BUNHalf-life: 18 hoursMetabolism: Unknown and minimal liver/CYP450Excretion: Feces and urineMechanism of Action: Bacteriostatic
1. Ssusceptible/sensitive (usually) 2. Iintermediate (variably susceptible/resistant) 3. Rresistant (or not effective clinically) 4. S+synergistic with cell wall antibiotics 5. Usensitive for UTI only (non systemic infection) 6. X1no data 7. X2active in vitro, but not used clinically 8. X3active in vitro, but not clinically effective for Group A strep pharyngitis or infections due to E. faecalis 9. X4active in vitro, but not clinically effective for strep pneumonia
Doxycycline Hyclate is the hyclate salt form of doxycycline, a synthetic, broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Doxycycline hyclate binds reversibly to the 30S ribosomal subunit, possibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit as well, thereby blocking the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex.
- Clinical Pharmacology
- Indications and Usage
- Adverse Reactions
- Doxycycline Dosage and Administration
- How Supplied
- Animal Pharmacology and Animal Toxicology
Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibacterial synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. Doxycycline capsules USP, 75 mg, and 100 mg contain Doxycycline monohydrate equivalent to 75 mg, and 100 mg of Doxycycline for oral administration. The chemical designation of the light yellow to pale yellow powder is 2-Naphthacenecarboxamide, 4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-,[4S-(4a,4a∝,5∝,5a∝,6∝,12a∝,)]-, monohydrate.Structural formula:C22...
Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degrees. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations in a biologically active form. Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration.Following a 200 mg dose of Doxycycline monohydrate, 24 normal adult volunteers averaged the following serum concentration values:Excretion of Doxycycline by the kidney is about 40%/72 hours in individu...
Doxycycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Doxycycline has bacteriostatic activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Cross resistance with other tetracyclines is common.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Doxycycline capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Doxycycline capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patt...
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
The use of drugs of the tetracycline class, including Doxycycline, during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Use of Doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential b...
As with other antibacterial preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, Doxycycline capsules should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibacterial therapy when indicated.Prescribing Doxycycline capsules in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is u...
Due to oral Doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral an...
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life, and it would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.
THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF Doxycycline DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS.Adults: The usual dose of oral Doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours or 50 mg every 6 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours. In the management of more...
Doxycycline Capsules, USP 75 mg have a brown opaque cap and a white opaque body. The capsules are imprinted “G&W 0554” with white ink on the cap and “75 mg” with brown ink on the body, filled with yellow to beige powder. Each capsule contains Doxycycline monohydrate equivalent to 75 mg Doxycycline.Doxycycline Capsules, USP 75 mg is available in: Bottles of 100 capsules ...................................................... NDC 0713-0554-01Doxycycline Capsules, USP 100 mg have a brown opaque c...
Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, Doxycycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in minipigs by Doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in dogs by Doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline.Minocycline, tetracycline PO4, methacycline, Doxycycline, tetracycline base, oxytetracycline HCl and tetracycline HCl were goitrogenic in rats fed a low iodine die...
1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-seventh Informational Supplement,CLSI document M100-S27 . CLSI document M100S23, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA. 2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - Tenth...
Jun 01, 2020 · Doxycycline is a light-yellow crystalline powder. Doxycycline Hyclate is soluble in water, while doxycycline monohydrate is very slightly soluble in water. Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections. This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis.
Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation is a method of inducible gene expression where transcription is reversibly turned on or off in the presence of the antibiotic tetracycline or one of its derivatives (e.g. doxycycline).
Minocycline and doxycycline are frequently used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Both of these closely related antibiotics have similar levels of efficacy, although doxycycline has a slightly lower risk of adverse side effects. Historically, minocycline has been an effective treatment for acne vulgaris.