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  1. Genotyping - Wikipedia

    Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence. It reveals the alleles an individual has inherited from their parents.

  2. Genotype - Wikipedia

    Genotyping is the process of elucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. Also known as a genotypic assay, techniques include PCR, DNA fragment analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes, DNA sequencing, and nucleic acid hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads.

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  4. Genotyping by sequencing - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In the field of genetic sequencing, genotyping by sequencing, also called GBS, is a method to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in order to perform genotyping studies, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

  5. SNP genotyping - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Hybridization-based methods
    • Enzyme-based methods
    • Other post-amplification methods based on physical properties of DNA
    • Sequencing

    SNP genotyping is the measurement of genetic variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms between members of a species. It is a form of genotyping, which is the measurement of more general genetic variation. SNPs are one of the most common types of genetic variation. A SNP is a single base pair mutation at a specific locus, usually consisting of two alleles. SNPs are found to be involved in the etiology of many human diseases and are becoming of particular interest in pharmacogenetics. Because

    Several applications have been developed that interrogate SNPs by hybridizing complementary DNA probes to the SNP site. The challenge of this approach is reducing cross-hybridization between the allele-specific probes. This challenge is generally overcome by manipulating the hybridization stringency conditions.

    A broad range of enzymes including DNA ligase, DNA polymerase and nucleases have been employed to generate high-fidelity SNP genotyping methods.

    The characteristic DNA properties of melting temperature and single stranded conformation have been used in several applications to distinguish SNP alleles. These methods very often achieve high specificity but require highly optimized conditions to obtain the best possible results.

    Next-generation sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing sequence less than 250 bases in a read which limits their ability to sequence whole genomes. However, their ability to generate results in real-time and their potential to be massively scaled up makes them a viable option for sequencing small regions to perform SNP genotyping. Compared to other SNP genotyping methods, sequencing is in particular, suited to identifying multiple SNPs in a small region, such as the highly polymorphic Ma

  6. Genotype–phenotype distinction - Wikipedia

    The genotypephenotype distinction is drawn in genetics. " Genotype " is an organism's full hereditary information. " Phenotype " is an organism's actual observed properties, such as morphology, development, or behavior. This distinction is fundamental in the study of inheritance of traits and their evolution.

  7. DNA microarray - Wikipedia

    Genotyping is a major use of DNA microarrays, but with some modifications they can also be used for other purposes such as measurement of gene expression and epigenetic markers. A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

  8. Kompetitive allele specific PCR - Wikipedia

    Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) is a homogenous, fluorescence-based genotyping variant of polymerase chain reaction. It is based on allele-specific oligo extension and fluorescence resonance energy transfer for signal generation.

  9. What is Genotyping? | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

    Genotyping is the technology that detects small genetic differences that can lead to major changes in phenotype, including both physical differences that make us unique and pathological changes underlying disease. It has a vast range of uses across basic scientific research, medicine, and agriculture.

  10. Genotyping by Sequencing | Sequence-based genotyping methods

    Genotyping by sequencing, or next-generation genotyping, is a genetic screening method for discovering novel plant and animal SNPs and performing genotyping studies. For some applications, such as genotype screening and genetic mapping, sequence-based genotyping provides a lower-cost alternative to arrays for studying genetic variation.

  11. Difference Between DNA Genotyping & Sequencing – 23andMe ...

    Genotyping is the process of determining which genetic variants an individual possesses. Genotyping can be performed through a variety of different methods, depending on the variants of interest and the resources available.

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