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  1. The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, English, is the world's most

  2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is a part of the Indo-European language family. Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and individual languages. The standard division of Germanic is into three branches,

  3. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Germanic languages are a branch of Indo-European languages. They came from one language, Proto-Germanic, which was first spoken in Scandinavia in the Iron Age. They are spoken by around 515 million people natively.

  4. The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Gothic is the only language in this branch which survives in written texts. The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, German, Dutch, Yiddish, Afrikaans, and others.

    • Overview
    • History
    • Family tree

    The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages. The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch. The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans, Yiddish and Luxembourgish, and Frisian and Scots. Additionally, several creoles, patois, and pidgins are based on Dutch, English, and German, as they were each languages of colonial empires.

    The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. Although some scholars cl

    Most scholars doubt that there was a Proto-West-Germanic proto-language common to the West Germanic languages and no others, but a few maintain that Proto-West-Germanic existed. Most agree that after East Germanic broke off, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germani

    Several scholars have published reconstructions of Proto-West-Germanic morphological paradigms and many authors have reconstructed individual Proto-West-Germanic morphological forms or lexemes. The first comprehensive reconstruction of the Proto-West-Germanic language was publish

    Note that divisions between subfamilies of continental Germanic languages are rarely precisely defined; most form dialect continua, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not. 1. North Sea Germanic / Ingvaeonic languages Anglo-Frisian languages English Languages/Anglic English Scots Yola Fingalian Frisian languages West Frisian East Frisian North Frisian Low German / Low Saxon Northern Low Saxon Schleswig dialects Holstein dialects Westphalian Eastphalia diale

    • Overview
    • Modern languages and dialects
    • History
    • Classification

    The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. The term "North Germanic languages" is used in comparative linguistics, whereas...

    The modern languages and their dialects in this group are: 1. Danish Jutlandic dialect North Jutlandic East Jutlandic West Jutlandic South Jutlandic Insular Danish Bornholmsk dialect 2. Swedish South Swedish dialects Scanian Göta dialects Gotland dialects Svea dialects Norrland dialects Jämtland dialects East Swedish dialects Finland Swedish Estonian Swedish 3. Dalecarlian dialects Elfdalian 4. Norwegian Bokmål Nynorsk Trønder dialects East Norwegian dialects West Norwegian dialects ...

    The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible to some degree during the Migration Period, so

    The North Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations shared with West Germanic: 1. The retraction of Proto-Germanic ē to ā. Proto-Germanic *jērą 'year' > Northwest Germanic *jārą, whence North Germanic *āra > Old Norse ...

    Some innovations are not found in West and East Germanic, such as: 1. Sharpening of geminate /jj/ and /ww/ according to Holtzmann's law Occurred also in East Germanic, but with a different outcome. Proto-Germanic *twajjǫ̂ > Old Norse tveggja, Gothic twaddjē, but > Old ...

    In historical linguistics, the North Germanic family tree is divided into two main branches, West Scandinavian languages and East Scandinavian languages, along with various dialects and varieties. The two branches are derived from the western and eastern dialect groups of Old Norse respectively. There was also an Old Gutnish branch spoken on the island of Gotland. The continental Scandinavian languages were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the period of Hanseatic expansion. Another

    • Overview
    • History
    • Groups

    The East Germanic languages, also called the Oder–Vistula Germanic languages, are a group of extinct Germanic languages spoken by East Germanic peoples. The only East Germanic languages of which texts are known are from Gothic, although a word list survives from its possible relative Crimean Gothic. Other languages that are assumed to be East Germanic include Vandalic and Burgundian, though no texts in these languages are known. Crimean Gothic is believed to have survived until the 18th...

    Since many years, the least controversial theory of the origin of the Germanic languages is that they originate in the Nordic Bronze Age of Southern Scandinavia and along the coast of northernmost Germany. By the 1st century AD, the writings of Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Tacitus indicate a division of Germanic-speaking peoples into large groupings with shared ancestry and culture. Based on accounts by Jordanes, Procopius, Paul the Deacon and others, as well as linguistic, toponymic, an

    Possible East Germanic-speaking tribes include: 1. Bastarnae 2. Burgundians 3. Goths Crimean Goths Gepids Greuthungi Ostrogoths Thervingi Visigoths 4. Heruli 5. Lemovii 6. Lugii Buri Diduni Harii Helisii Helveconae Manimi Nahanarvali 7. Rugians 8. Scirii 9. Vandals Hasdingi Silingi 10. Vidivarii

    • Varying depending on time (4th-18th centuries), currently none (all languages are extinct), Until late 4th century:, Central and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea), late 4th—early 10th centuries:, Much of southern, western, southeastern, and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea) and North Africa, early 10th—late 18th centuries:, Isolated areas in eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)
    • Indo-EuropeanGermanicEast Germanic
  5. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The West Germanic Languages are a branch of Germanic languages first spoken in Central Europe and the British Isles. The branch has three parts: the North Sea Germanic languages, the Weser-Rhine Germanic languages, and the Elbe Germanic languages.

    • Overview
    • Absolute chronology
    • Theoretical boundaries
    • Phonological boundaries

    In historical linguistics, the Germanic parent language includes the reconstructed languages in the Germanic group referred to as Pre-Germanic Indo-European, Early Proto-Germanic, and Late Proto-Germanic, spoken in the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. The less precise term Germanic, that appears in etymologies, dictionaries, etc., loosely refers to a language spoken in the 1st millennium AD, proposedly at that time developing into the group of Germanic languages—a stricter term for that same...

    Several historical linguists have pointed towards the apparent material and social continuity connecting the cultures of the Nordic Bronze Age and the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe as having implications in regard to the stability and later development of the Germanic language group. The emerging consensus among scholars is that the First Germanic Sound Shift, long considered to be the defining mark in the development of Proto-Germanic, happened as late as 500 BC.

    The upper boundary assigned to the Germanic parent language is described as "dialectal Indo-European". In the works of both Van Coetsem and Voyles, attempts are made to reconstruct aspects of this stage of the language using a process the former refers to as inverted reconstruction; i.e. one using the data made available through the attested daughter languages in light of and at times in preference to the results of the comparative reconstruction undertaken to arrive at Proto-Indo-European. The

    In his work entitled The Vocalism of the Germanic Parent Language, Frans Van Coetsem lays out a broad set of phonological characteristics which he considers to be representative of the various stages encompassed by the Germanic parent language

  6. |state=expanded: {{Germanic languages|state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible |state=autocollapse : {{Germanic languages|state=autocollapse}} shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{ navbar }} , a {{ sidebar }} , or some other table on the page with the collapsible attribute

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