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The Gothic Revival was primarily an architectural movement that began in 1740s England. Also termed Victorian Gothic and Neo-Gothic, the style sought to revive medieval forms, much like the Neoclassical style sought to revive works from classical antiquity. During the 18th century, the ruins of medieval Gothic architecture began to receive newfound appreciation after having been relatively dismissed in the overall history of architecture.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum and interest grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture , in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time.
A group of furniture in the Neoclassical Revival style signifies new tendencies that emerged around 1905 as a reaction against decorative overstatements of the Art Nouveau period. Whilst working on the exhibition ‘From the Gothic Style to Art Nouveau’ the overall collection of objects held by the national museums of Latvia was enriched with valuable decorative art articles never obtained in Latvia.
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- Survival and Revival
- Romanticism and Nationalism
- Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic
- Collegiate Gothic
- Vernacular Adaptations
- 20th Century
Gothic Revival architecture adorns the Yale University campus The Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately, the “Anglo-Catholicicism” tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied considerably in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods. In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread rapidly to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, S...
Sacred Heart Church, Kőszeg, Hungary Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, and the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII’s Chapel at Westminster. However, Gothic architecture did not die out completely in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects; at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, and in the construction of churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Spain, Germany, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults (completed 1658) for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, which had been under construction since 1390; there, the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the “Gothic order” as one of the prima...
Gothic façade of the Parlement de Rouen in France, built between 1499 and 1508, which later inspired Neo-gothic revival in the 19th century French neo-Gothic had its roots in the French medieval Gothic architecture, where it was created in the 12th century. Gothic architecture was sometimes known during the medieval period as the “Opus Francigenum”, (the “French Art”). French scholar Alexandre de Laborde wrote in 1816 that “Gothic architecture has beauties of its own”, which marked the beginning of the Gothic Revival in France. Starting in 1828, Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for King Louis-Philippe’s royal chapel at Dreux. It would be hard to find a large, significant commission in Gothic taste that preceded this one, save for some Gothic features in a handful of jardins paysagers. Saint Clotilde Basilica completed 1857, Paris The French Gothic Revival was set on sounder intellect...
The upper chapel of the Sainte Chapelle, restored by Félix Duban in the 19th century If France had lagged slightly in entering the neo-Gothic scene, she produced a giant of the revival in Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. As well as a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built, theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of Carcassonne, and to Notre-Dame and Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin, as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic stood in stark contrast to the revival’s romanticist origins. Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It w...
The Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh In the United States, Collegiate Gothic was a late and literal resurgence of the English Gothic Revival, adapted for American university campuses. The firm of Cope & Stewardson was an early and important exponent, transforming the campuses of Bryn Mawr College, Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania in the 1890s. The movement continued into the 20th century, with Cope & Stewardson’s campus for Washington University in St. Louis (1900–09), Charles Donagh Maginnis’s buildings at Boston College (1910s), Ralph Adams Cram’s design for the Princeton University Graduate College (1913), and James Gamble Rogers’ reconstruction of the campus of Yale University (1920s). Charles Klauder’s Gothic Revival skyscraper on the University of Pittsburgh’s campus, the Cathedral of Learning (1926) exhibited very Gothic stylings both inside and out, while utilizing modern technologies to make the building taller.
Carpenter gothic Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California (built 1905) showing gothic arches, steep gables, and a tower. The tower includes examples of abat-sons Carpenter Gothic houses and small churches became common in North America and other places in the late 19th century.These structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional American light-frame construction. The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the High Gothic. But, in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables. Probably the best-known example of Carpenter Gothic is a house in Eldon, Iowa, that Grant Wood used for the background of his famous painting American Gothic. Benjamin Mountfort of Canterbury, New Zealand imported the Gothic Revival style to New Zealand, and designed Go...
The Santa Justa Lift (1901), Lisbon, Portugal The Gothic style dictated the use of structural members in compression, leading to tall, buttressed buildings with interior columns of load-bearing masonry and tall, narrow windows. But, by the start of the 20th century, technological developments such as the steel frame, the incandescent light bulb and the elevator led many[who?]to see this style of architecture as obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of rib vaults and flying buttresses, providing wider open interiors with fewer columns interrupting the view. Some architects persisted in using Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornamentation to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in Cass Gilbert’s 1913 Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York and Raymond Hood’s 1922 Tribune Tower in Chicago. But, over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic became supplanted by Modernism. Some[who?]in the Modern Movement saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entire...Pugin and the Gothic RevivalW. D. Robson-Scot, The Literary Background of the Gothic Revival in Germany.I. D. Whyte and K. A. Whyte, The Changing Scottish Landscape, 1500–1800 (London: Taylor & Francis, 1991), ISBN 0-415-02992-9, p. 100.Kyles, Shannon. “Gothic Revival (1750-1900)”. OntarioArchitecture.com. http://www.ontarioarchitecture.com/gothicrevival.html.
May 30, 2016 · Art Nouveau (the term comes from French and it means New Art) is an art style which mainly manifested in visual arts, design and architecture in the late 19th and early 20th century (1890 – 1914). Art Nouveau spread, almost at the same time, in most of the cultures and European countries , but also in North America.
It is a search for a particular style for Catalonia drawing on Medieval and Arab styles. Like the currents known in other countries as Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Liberty style, Modern Style and Vienna Secession, Modernisme was closely related to the English Arts and Crafts movement and the Gothic Revival.