Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).    Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness . 
- History of HIV/AIDS
AIDS is caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),...
- History of HIV/AIDS
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HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. It is roughly spherical with a diameter of about 120 nm, around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell. It is composed of two copies of positive-sense single-stranded RNA that codes for the virus's nine genes enclosed by a conical capsid composed of 2,000 copies of the viral protein p24.
- Mortality and morbidity
- Public perception
- Perspective of doctors
- By race/ethnicity
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV, found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in gay men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981. Treatment of HIV/AIDS is primarily via a "drug cocktail" of antiretroviral drugs, and education programs to help people avoid infection. Initially, infected foreign nationals were turned back at the U.S. border to help prevent additional inf
As of 2018, about 700,000 people have died of HIV/AIDS in the U.S. since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, and nearly 13,000 people with AIDS in the United States die each year. With improved treatments and better prophylaxis against opportunistic infections, death rates have significantly declined. The overall death rate among persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in New York City decreased by sixty-two percent from 2001 to 2012.
After the HIV/AIDS outbreak in the 1980s, various responses emerged in an effort to alleviate the issue. These included new medical treatments, travel restrictions, and new public health policies in the United States.
One of the best known works on the history of HIV is the 1987 book And the Band Played On by Randy Shilts. Shilts contends that Ronald Reagan's administration dragged its feet in dealing with the crisis due to homophobia, while the gay community viewed early reports and public health measures with corresponding distrust, thus allowing the disease to infect hundreds of thousands more. This resulted in the formation of ACT-UP, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power by Larry Kramer. Galvanized by the
AIDS was met with great fear and concern by the nation, much like any other epidemic, and those who were primarily affected were populations that the majority did not think highly of: homosexuals, African-Americans, Latinos, and intravenous drug users. The general thought of the population was to create distance and establish boundaries from these people, and some doctors were not immune from such impulses. During the epidemic, doctors began to not treat AIDS patients, not only to create distanc
African Americans continue to experience the most severe burden of HIV, compared with other races and ethnicities. Black people represent approximately 13% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 43% of new HIV infections in 2017. Furthermore, they make up nearly 52% of AIDS-related deaths in America. While the overall rates of HIV incidences and prevalence have decreased, they have increased in one particular demographic: African American gay and bisexual men. In America, black h
- Origins of HIV/AIDS in Africa
- Prevention of HIV infections
- Causes and spread
HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many African countries. AIDS rates vary dramatically although the majority of cases are concentrated in Southern Africa. Although the continent is home to about 15.2 percent of the world's population, more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died. Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounted for an estimated 69 percent of all people living with HIV...
The earliest known cases of human HIV infection were in western equatorial Africa, probably in southeast Cameroon where groups of the central common chimpanzee live. "Phylogenetic analyses... revealed that all HIV-1 strains known to infect humans, including HIV-1 groups M, N, and O, were closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages: that found in P. t. troglodytes." It is suspected that the disease jumped to humans from butchering of chimpanzees for human consumption. Current hypotheses
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disease caused by the slow-acting human immunodeficiency virus. The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome. HIV emerged in Africa in the 1960s and traveled to the United States and Europe the following decade. In the 1980s it spread across the globe until it became a pandemic. Some areas of the world were already significantly impacted by AIDS, while in others the epidemic was just
Numerous public education initiatives have been launched to curb the spread of HIV in Africa.
Many activists have drawn attention to stigmatization of those testing as HIV positive. This is due to many factors such as a lack of understanding of the disease, lack of access to treatment, the media, knowing that AIDS is incurable, and prejudices brought on by a cultures beli
During the Abuja African Union Summit on HIV/AIDS in April 2001, the heads of state and heads of government of Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Uganda established the AIDS Watch Africa advocacy platform. The initiative was formed to "accelerate
High-risk behavioral patterns are largely responsible for the significantly greater spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other parts of the world. Chief among these are the traditionally liberal attitudes espoused by many communities inhabiting the subcontinent toward
Sub-Saharan "Africans have always appreciated the importance of health care because good health is seen as necessary for the continuation and growth of their lineage". Without proper health the culture will not be able to thrive and grow. Unfortunately, "health services in many c
According to a 2007 report, male and female circumcision were statistically associated with an increased incidence of HIV infection among the females in Kenya and the males in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania who self-reported that they both underwent the procedure and were virgins.[
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV. Acquired means that people are not born with the disease. They get it after being infected with the HIV virus. Immune or Immuno-talks about the immune system. The immune system is the part of the body that fights off disease.
HIV/AIDS (Anglisht: Human Immuno-deficiency Virus, Acquired Immune Deficency Syndrome), është virusi i mungesës së imunitetit te njeriu, një virus që shkatërron sistemin imunitar. Virusi HIV/AIDS nuk mund të depërtojë nëpërmjet lëkurës së padëmtuar dhe as nëpërmjet mbrojtjes që ofron një prezervativ.
A HIV-1 legközelebbi rokona, a csimpánz SIV-je az állatokban AIDS-szerű tüneteket okoz, ezért úgy gondolják, hogy viszonylag nem régen ugrott át erre a fajra, amelynek még nem volt ideje alkalmazkodni a fertőzéshez.
HIV/AIDS têm tido um grande impacto na sociedade contemporânea, tanto como uma doença quanto como uma fonte de discriminação. A doença também tem impactos econômicos significativos. Há muitos equívocos sobre o HIV/AIDS, tais como a crença de que ela pode ser transmitida pelo contato casual não sexual.
Stanje infekcije HIV-om bez simptoma može potrajati sedam do deset godina do pojave simptoma AIDS-a, od kojih su najčešći gubitak tjelesne težine više od 10 posto od normalne, temperatura viša od 38°C koja traje više od mjesec dana, dugotrajna i neobjašnjiva dijareja, gljivična infekcija usne šupljine i recidivi herpesa.