Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over three million of Libya's seven million people. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age as descendants from Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures.
- Fayez Al-Sarraj
Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj (Arabic: فائز السراج or فايز...
Tripoli (/ ˈ t r ɪ p əl i /; Arabic: طرابلس , Ṭarābulus) is...
- Khalifa Haftar
Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar (Arabic: خليفة بلقاسم...
- Fayez Al-Sarraj
From Barqa, the Fezzan (Libya's Southern region) was conquered by Uqba ibn Nafi in 663 and Berber resistance was overcome. During the following centuries Libya came under the rule of several Islamic dynasties, under various levels of autonomy from Ummayad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates of the time. Arab rule was easily imposed in the coastal farming areas and on the towns, which prospered again under Arab patronage.
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Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in North Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. It covers an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres. It is the 17th largest country in the world.
- Septimius Severus
- Last centuries
- Main cities
The area of North Africa which has been known as Libya since 1911 was under Roman domination between 146 BC and 672 AD. The Latin name Libya at the time referred to the continent of Africa in general. What is now coastal Libya was known as Tripolitania and Pentapolis, divided between the Africa province in the west, and Creta et Cyrenaica in the east. In 296 AD, the Emperor Diocletian separated the administration of Crete from Cyrenaica and in the latter formed the new provinces of "Upper Libya"
After the final conquest and destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, northwestern Africa went under Roman rule and, shortly thereafter, the coastal area of what is now western Libya was established as a province under the name of Tripolitania with Leptis Magna capital and the major trading port in the region. In 96 BC Rome peacefully obtained Cyrenaica with the so-called sovereign Pentapolis, formed by the cities of Cyrene, its port of Apollonia, Arsinoe, Berenice and Barce, that will be transformed
The best period of Roman Libya was under emperor Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna. He favored his hometown above all other provincial cities, and the buildings and wealth he lavished on it made Leptis Magna the third-most important city in Africa, rivaling Carthage and Alexandria. In 205, he and the imperial family visited the city and received great honors. Among the changes that Severus introduced to this city were to create a magnificent new forum and to rebuild the docks. Leptis Magna
As a Roman province, Libya was prosperous, and reached a golden age in the 2nd century AD, when the city of Leptis Magna rivalled Carthage and Alexandria in prominence. Septimius Severus, shown on a golden coin, greatly improved the economy of his native Roman Libya For more than 400 years, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were wealthy Roman provinces and part of a cosmopolitan state whose citizens shared a common language, legal system, and Roman identity. Roman ruins, like those of Leptis Magna and
After Septimius Severus Roman Libya slowly declined for the next century of so, before being destroyed by the tsunami of 365 AD. A recovery faltered, and well before the Arab invasion in the mid-7th century, Greco-Roman civilization had been collapsing in the area except Oea.
Life in Roman Libya was concentrated around a few coastal cities, mostly founded by Greeks and Phoenicians: 1. Leptis Magna in Tripolitania 2. Oea in Tripolitania 3. Sabratha in Tripolitania 4. Cyrene 5. Apollonia 6. Arsinoe 7. Berenice 8. Barce 9. Ptolemais in Cyrenaica 10. Paraetonium in Marmarica 11. Antipyrgon in Marmarica 12. Ghirza in Tripolitanian Sahara
The Second Libyan Civil War was a multi-sided civil war that lasted from 2014 to 2020 in the North African country of Libya fought between different armed groups, mainly the House of Representatives and the Government of National Accord.
An in depth investigation into the Libyan intervention and its aftermath was conducted by the U.K. Parliament's House of Commons' cross-party Foreign Affairs Committee, the final conclusions of which were released on 14 September 2016 in a report titled Libya: Examination of intervention and collapse and the UK's future policy options.
The Kingdom of Libya, called the United Kingdom of Libya until 1963, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic. United Kingdom of Libya Kingdom of Libya المملكة الليبية Al-Mamlakah Al-Lībiyya Regno di Libia ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ 1951–1969 Flag Coat of arms Anthem: "Libya, Libya, Libya" CapitalTripoli...
Under the constitution of October 1951, the federal monarchy of Libya was headed by King Idris as chief of state, with succession to his designated male heirs. Substantial political power resided with the king. The executive arm of the government consisted of a prime minister and
Several factors, rooted in Libya's history, affected the political development of the newly independent country. They reflected the differing political orientations of the provinces and the ambiguities inherent in Libya's monarchy. First, after the first Libyan general election,
In its foreign policy, the Kingdom of Libya was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States, of which it became a member in 1953. The government was in close alliance with the United States and United Kingdom; both countries mainta
Although the king and the crown prince died in exile and most of the younger generation of Libyans were born after the monarchy, the Senussi dynasty has enjoyed somewhat of a comeback during the 2011 Libyan civil war, especially in the dynasty's traditional stronghold of Cyrenaic
The United Kingdom of Libya was a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with legislative power being exercised by the monarch in conjunction with parliament.
The Kingdom's parliament consisted of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Both chambers met and closed at the same time.
Following a change in the constitution abolishing the federal makeup of the country in 1963 the three provinces were reorganised into ten governorates which were ruled by an appointed governor. 1. Bayda, formerly part of Cyrenaica 2. Al Khums, formerly part of Tripolitania 3. Awb
Kingdom of Libya "Libya, Libya, Libya" was composed by Mohammed Abdel Wahab in 1951 and was originally the national anthem of the Kingdom of Libya, from its independence in 1951 until 1969 when King Idris I was overthrown by a bloodless coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi. The lyrics themselves were written by Al Bashir Al Arebi.ArabicTransliterationEnglish translationيا بلادي يا بلادي بجهاد ...Yā biladī yā biladī Bijihādī waj ...O my country, O my country, With my ...يا بلادي أنت ميراث الجد ...Yā biladī anti Mīrāthu-ljudū ...O my country, You're the heritage of my ...جرّد الأجداد عزماً مره� ...Jurrudal-ajdādu ‘azmān murhafā Y ...Our grandfathers stripped a fine ...حيّ إدريس سليل الفاتحي ...Huyya idrīsu salilu-lfātihīn Innahu ...Extend on Idris the honour, the ...
- 24 June 1955
- Al Bashir Al Arebi
- "Ya Beladi" (English: "O my country!")
- Mohammed Abdel Wahab, 1951
- Later sources
- Ancient Libyan (Berber) tribes
More narrowly, Libya could also refer to the country immediately west of Egypt, viz Marmarica and Cyrenaica. The Libyan Sea or Mare Libycum was the part of the Mediterranean Sea south of Crete, between Cyrene and Alexandria. In the Hellenistic period, the Berbers were known as Libyans, a Greek term for the inhabitants of the Berber world. Their lands were called "Libya" and extended from modern Morocco to the western borders of ancient Egypt. Modern Egypt contains the Siwa Oasis, which was part
The Greek name is based on the ethnonym Libu. The name Libya was the Latin designation for the region of the Maghreb, from the Ancient Greek. In Classical Greece, the term had a broader meaning, encompassing the continent that later became known as Africa, which, in antiquity, was assumed to constitute one third of the world's land mass, compared to Europe and Asia combined.
Compared with the history of Egypt, historians know little about the history of Libya, as there are few surviving written records. Information on ancient Libya comes from archaeological evidence and historic sources written by Egypt's neighbors, the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines, and from Arabs of Medieval times.
The exact boundaries of ancient Libya are unknown. It lay west of ancient Egypt and was known as "Tjehenu" to the Ancient Egyptians. Libya was an unknown territory to the Egyptians: it was the land of the spirits.
After the Egyptians, the Greeks; Romans; and Byzantines mentioned various other tribes in Libya. Later tribal names differ from the Egyptian ones but, probably, some tribes were named in the Egyptian sources and the later ones, as well. The Meshwesh-tribe represents this assumption. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called Mazyes by Hektaios and Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called "Mazaces" and "Mazax" in Latin sources. All those names are similar to the name used by the Berbers f
There were many tribes in ancient Libya, including the now extinct Psylli, with the Libu being the most prominent. The ancient Libyans were mainly pastoral nomads, living off their goats, sheep and other livestock. Milk, meat, hides and wool were gathered from their livestock for food, tents and clothing.