Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the Northern Hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature.
Mars 1962A was a Mars flyby mission, launched on October 24, 1962 and Mars 1962B an intended first Mars lander mission, launched in late December of the same year (1962). Both failed from either breaking up as they were going into Earth orbit or having the upper stage explode in orbit during the burn to put the spacecraft into trans-Mars ...
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Mars is a terrestrial planet and made of rock. The ground there is red because of iron oxide (rust) in the rocks and dust. The planet's atmosphere is very thin. It is mostly carbon dioxide with some argon and nitrogen and tiny amounts of other gases including oxygen. The temperatures on Mars are colder than on Earth, because it is farther away from the Sun and has less air to keep heat in. There is water ice and frozen carbon dioxide at the north and south poles. Mars does not have any liquid wateron the surface now, but signs of run-off on the surface were probably caused by water. The average thicknessof the planet's crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi).
Mars has two small moons, called Phobos and Deimos. The origin of Mars' moons is unknown and controversial. One theory is that the moons are captured asteroids. However, the moons' near circular orbits and low inclination relative to the Martian equator are not in agreement with the capture hypothesis. Estimates of the mass ejected by a large Borealis-size impact vary. Simulations suggest that a body about 0.02 of Mars mass (~0.002 Earth mass) in size can produce a sizable debris disk in Martian orbit. Much of the material would stay close to Mars.There are several other large impact basins on Mars that could also have ejected enough debris to form the moons.
Lack of magnetic field
Mars does not have a global magnetic field. Despite this, observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized. This suggests that polarity reversals have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism is similar to the magnetic striping found on Earth's ocean floors. One theory is that these bands suggest plate tectonic activity on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamostopped working and the planet's magnetic field faded.
A Martian day is called a sol, and is a little longer than an Earth day. Mars rotates in 24 hours and 37 minutes. It rotates on a tilted axis, just like the Earth does, so it has four different seasons. Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to their similar axial tilt. The lengths of the Martian seasons are almost twice those of Earth's, as Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being almost two Earth years long. Marti...
A 2015 report says Martian dark streaks on the surface were affected by water. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to its low atmospheric pressure (there's not enough air to hold it in), except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of frozen water. The amount of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be enough to cover the entire planet's surface 11 meters deep. A permafrostmantle stretches from the pole to lati...
Our records of watching and recording Mars start with ancient Egyptian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC. Detailed observations of the location of Mars were made by Babylonian astronomers who developed methods using math to predict the future position of the planet. The ancient Greek philosophers and astronomers developed a model of the solar system with the Earth at the center ('geocentric'), instead of the sun. They used this model to explain the planet's motions. Vedic and Islamic astronomers estimated the size of Mars and its distance from Earth. Similar work was done by Chineseastronomers. In the 16th century, Nicholas Copernicus proposed a model for the Solar System in which the planets follow circular orbits about the Sun. This 'heliocentric' model was the beginning of modern astronomy. It was revised by Johannes Kepler, who gave an elliptical orbitfor Mars which better fit the data from our observations. The first observations of Mars by telescope was by Galileo Galilei i...
Because Mars is the one of the closest planets to Earth in the Solar System, many have wondered if there is any kind of life on Mars. Today we know that the kind of life, if any, would be some simple bacteria-type organism.
- 249200000 km, (154800000 mi; 1.666 AU)
- 227939200 km, (141634900 mi; 1.523679 AU)
- 206700000 km, (128400000 mi; 1.382 AU)
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The word Mārs (genitive Mārtis), which in Old Latin and poetic usage also appears as Māvors (Māvortis), is cognate with Oscan Māmers (Māmertos). The oldest recorded Latin form, Mamart-, is likely of foreign origin. It has been explained as deriving from Maris, the name of an Etruscan child-god, though this is not universally agreed upon. Scholars have varying views on whether the two gods are related, and if so how. Latin adjectives from the name of Mars are martius and martialis, from which derive English "martial" (as in "martial arts" or "martial law") and personal names such as "Marcus", "Mark" and "Martin". Mars may ultimately be a thematic reflex of the Proto-Indo-European god Perkwunos, having originally a thunderer character.
Like Ares who was the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is usually considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno. However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function when he gave birth to Minerva directly from his forehead (or mind); to restore the balance, Juno sought the advice of the goddess Flora on how to do the same. Flora obtained a magic flower (Latin flos, plural flores, a masculine word) and tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once. She then plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, and impregnated her. Juno withdrew to Thrace and the shore of Marmarafor the birth. Ovid tells this story in the Fasti, his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar. It may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars's month, which is also marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Ma...
The consort of Mars was Nerio or Neriene, "Valor." She represents the vital force (vis), power (potentia) and majesty (maiestas) of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue" (from vir, "man"). In the early 3rd century BCE, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Neriene were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the later Roman Empire, Neriene came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio probably originates as a divine personification of Mars's power, as such abstractions in Latin are generally feminine. Her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic godsmay have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages."
Virility as a kind of life force (vis) or virtue (virtus) is an essential characteristic of Mars.As an agricultural guardian, he directs his energies toward creating conditions that allow crops to grow, which may include warding off hostile forces of nature. The priesthood of the Arval Brothers called on Mars to drive off "rust" (lues), with its double meaning of wheat fungus and the red oxides that affect metal, a threat to both iron farm implements and weaponry. In the surviving text of their hymn, the Arval Brothers invoked Mars as ferus, "savage" or "feral" like a wild animal. Mars's potential for savagery is expressed in his obscure connections to the wild woodlands, and he may even have originated as a god of the wild, beyond the boundaries set by humans, and thus a force to be propitiated. In his book on farming, Cato invokes Mars Silvanus for a ritual to be carried out in silva, in the woods, an uncultivated place that if not held within bounds can threaten to overtake the f...
The wild animals most sacred to Mars were the woodpecker, the wolf, and the bear, which in the natural lore of the Romans were said always to inhabit the same foothills and woodlands. Plutarch notes that the woodpecker (picus) is sacred to Mars because "it is a courageous and spirited bird and has a beak so strong that it can overturn oaks by pecking them until it has reached the inmost part of the tree." As the beak of the picus Martius contained the god's power to ward off harm, it was carried as a magic charm to prevent bee stings and leech bites. The bird of Mars also guarded a woodland herb (paeonia) used for treatment of the digestive or female reproductive systems; those who sought to harvest it were advised to do so by night, lest the woodpecker jab out their eyes. The picus Martius seems to have been a particular species, but authorities differ on which one: perhaps Picus viridis or Dryocopus martius. The woodpecker was revered by the Latin peoples, who abstained from eatin...
The earliest center in Rome for cultivating Mars as a deity was the Altar of Mars (Ara Martis) in the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars") outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). The Romans thought that this altar had been established by the semi-legendary Numa Pompilius, the peace-loving successor of Romulus. According to Roman tradition, the Campus Martius had been consecrated to Mars by their ancestors to serve as horse pasturage and an equestrian training ground for youths. During the Roman Republic (509–27 BCE), the Campus was a largely open expanse. No temple was built at the altar, but from 193 BCE a covered walkway connected it to the Porta Fontinalis, near the office and archives of the Roman censors. Newly elected censors placed their curule chairs by the altar, and when they had finished conducting the census, the citizens were collectively purified with a suovetaurilia there. A frieze from the so-called "Altar" of Domitius Ahenobarbusis thought to depict the census,...
In Roman art, Mars is depicted as either bearded and mature, or young and clean-shaven. Even nudeor seminude, he often wears a helmet or carries a spear as emblems of his warrior nature. Mars was among the deities to appear on the earliest Roman coinage in the late 4th and early 3rd century BCE. On the Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis), built in the last years of the 1st century BCE, Mars is a mature man with a "handsome, classicizing" face, and a short curly beard and moustache. His helmet is a plumed neo-Attic-type. He wears a military cloak (paludamentum) and a cuirass ornamented with a gorgoneion. Although the relief is somewhat damaged at this spot, he appears to hold a spear garlanded in laurel, symbolizing a peace that is won by military victory. The 1st-century statue of Mars found in the Forum of Nerva (pictured at top) is similar. In this guise, Mars is presented as the dignified ancestor of the Roman people. The panel of the Ara Pacison which he appears would have faced the Camp...
The high priest of Mars in Roman public religion was the Flamen Martialis, who was one of the three major priests in the fifteen-member college of flamens. Mars was also served by the Salii, a twelve-member priesthood of patrician youths who dressed as archaic warriors and danced in procession around the city in March. Both priesthoods extend to the earliest periods of Roman history, and patrician birthwas required.
The festivals of Mars cluster in his namesake month of March (Latin: Martius), with a few observances in October, the beginning and end of the season for military campaigning and agriculture. Festivals with horse racing took place in the Campus Martius. Some festivals in March retained characteristics of new year festivals, since Martius was originally the first month of the Roman calendar. 1. February 27: Equirria, involving chariotor horse races; 2. March 1: Mars's dies natalis ("birthday"), a feria also sacred to his mother Juno; 3. March 14: a second Equirria, again with chariot races; 4. March 14 or 15: Mamuralia, a new year festival when a figure called Mamurius Veturius(perhaps the "old Mars" of the old year) is driven out; 5. March 17: an Agonalia or Agonium Martiale, an obscure type of observance held at other times for various deities; 6. March 23: Tubilustrium, a purification of the deploying army March 23; 7. October 15: the ritual of the October Horse,...
Mars gave his name to the third month in the Roman calendar, Martius, from which English "March" derives. In the most ancient Roman calendar, Martius was the first month. The planet Mars was named for him, and in some allegorical and philosophical writings, the planet and the god are endowed with shared characteristics. In many languages, Tuesday is named for the planet Mars or the god of war: In Latin, martis dies ("Mars's Day"), survived in Romance languages as marte (Portuguese), martes (Spanish), mardi (French), martedi (Italian), marți (Romanian), and dimarts (Catalan). In Irish (Gaelic), the day is An Mháirt, while in Albanian it is e Marta. The English word Tuesday derives from Old English "Tiwesdæg" and means "Tiw's Day", Tiw being the Old English form of the Proto-Germanic war god *Tîwaz, or Týrin Norse.
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Mars, Incorporated is an American multinational manufacturer of confectionery, pet food, and other food products and a provider of animal care services, with US$40 billion in annual sales in 2020. It was ranked as the 6th largest privately held company in the United States by Forbes. Headquartered in McLean, Virginia, United States, the company is entirely owned by the Mars family. Mars operates in five business segments around the world: Mars Wrigley Confectionery, Petcare, Food, Drinks, and Sy
Mars is a company known for the confectionery items that it creates, such as Mars bars, Milky Way bars, M&M's, Skittles, Snickers, and Twix. They also produce non-confectionery snacks, such as Combos, and other foods, including Ben's Original, and pasta sauce brand Dolmio, as well as pet foods, such as Pedigree, Whiskas, Nutro and Royal Canin brands. Orbit gum is among the most popular brands, managed by the Mars subsidiary brand Wrigley. During World War II, Wrigley was selling their eponymous
Mars Food UK Limited is the name of the United Kingdom branch of Mars, Inc. The company is based in Slough, England. Mars brands manufactured for the United Kingdom market but not for the United States include Tunes. In 1932, Forrest Mars, Sr., opened what was then Mars headquarters, and remains Mars headquarters in Slough, Berkshire on the then-new Slough Trading Estate, after a disagreement with his father, Franklin Clarence Mars. In this factory, he produced the first Mars bar, based on the A
Forrest Mars started the pet food industry in Europe, and his Mars Candy Company bought Kal Kan. Forrest Mars changed the name of Kal Kan dog food to Pedigree, and Kal Kan cat food to Whiskas. As of 1991, Mars controlled 60 percent of the pet food market, both in volume and value. Whiskas was the number one brand. As of 1994, Mars was the leading pet food company worldwide with $4 billion in sales. In February 2003, Mars acquired Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and in 2007 it was renamed Mars Fis
In 1963, a large factory was opened in Veghel in the Netherlands. This factory has currently the biggest production volume of Mars factories and is one of the biggest chocolate factories in the world. Most confectionery products for Europe were produced in Slough and Veghel. The two factories in Slough were located on Liverpool Road and Dundee Road; the one on Liverpool Road closed in 2007, with Twix production moving to the Netherlands and Starburst production moving to the Czech Republic. The
Throughout 2012, Mars contributed $376,650 to a $46 million political campaign known as "The Coalition Against The Costly Food Labeling Proposition, sponsored by Farmers and Food Producers". This organization was set up to oppose "Proposition 37", demanding mandatory labeling of
In February 2016, Mars stated that it would no longer be using artificial colors in each of its candy products. The company announced that more than 50 of its products would be affected in commitment effort to align with the changing preferences of consumers. The company along wi
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Mars diameter är ungefär hälften så stor som jordens och massan är ungefär en tiondel så stor. Samtidigt har Mars en ungefär dubbelt så stor diameter som månen och tio gånger större massa. Storleksmässigt ligger Mars alltså nästan mitt emellan jorden och månen. Mars totala yta är marginellt mindre än de delar av jorden som är täckta av land. Densiteten är den lägsta av alla stenplaneter i solsystemet. Trots att solsystemets minsta planet Merkurius har både mindre diameter och lägre massa än Mars är ytgravitationennågot lägre på Mars på grund av den låga densiteten. Detta innebär att ett föremål eller en person skulle ha mindre tyngd på Mars än på någon av de andra planeterna.
Två små månar, Phobos och Deimos, kretsar i en låg omloppsbana runt planeten Mars. Månarna består av oregelbundna klippor och kan vara asteroider som infångats av planetens gravitationsfält (likt 5261 Eureka, en av Mars trojanska asteroider). De upptäcktes 1877 av den amerikanska astronomen Asaph Hall och namngavs efter krigsguden Ares två söner i den grekiska mytologin, Phobos (skräck) och Deimos (fruktan), som medföljde sin far i strid. Ares var känd som Mars i den romerska mytologin. Sett från Mars yta ter sig de båda månarna mycket annorlunda än våra upplevelser av jordens måne. Phobos, som befinner sig så nära Mars att man inte kan observera den över horisonten från hela planeten, går upp i väster, ner i öster, och upp igen efter bara 11 timmar. Eftersom Phobos befinner sig under synkron omloppsbana (där omloppstiden är lika stor som planetens rotationsperiod) kommer månen i framtiden att kontinuerligt sjunka ner i en lägre och lägre omloppsbana. Om cirka 50 miljone...
Planeten upptäcktes redan under förhistorisk tid. Den omnämndes bland annat i Kina, Egypten, Indien samt Assyrien och har en betydande plats inom förhistorisk mytologi på många platser. I de kinesiska, japanska, koreanska och vietnamesiska kulturerna kallas himlakroppen för 火星 (huoxing), vilket utläses "eldstjärna". Namnet refererar till den kinesiska filosofin om att naturfenomen kan delas upp i de fem elementen. Eftersom Mars är synlig för blotta ögat har planeten varit känd sedan långt för...
Det har nämnts att människan redan nästa decennium kan åka till Mars. NASA:s vision är att det senast 2025 ska stå en människa på Mars. Detta ambitiösa projekt kommer att kräva mycket planering. ESA har som mål att sända människor senast 2030 genom sitt Aurora Exploration Programme  där Mars-500 är ett inledande projekt. Det propageras av vissa, till exempel Robert Zubrin, att göra Mars mer jordliknande genom "terraformering" vilket de menar på lång sikt skulle skapa hav och en andningsbar atmosfär på Mars. Dessa planer har av vissa tolkats som orealistiska och jämförts med science fiction.
Ansiktet på Mars
När Viking 1 1976 fotograferade kullarna och taffelbergen i den västra delen av Arabia Terra i Cydonia, så upptäcktes en formation som liknade ett mänskligt ansikte. Detta ansikte ansågs av somliga kunna vara en skapelse av intelligenta varelser. Ända fram till 2001 trodde ett stort antal människor fortfarande att det inte var någon naturformation, men detta år kom en ny högupplöst bild från en rymdsond i omloppsbana runt Mars där formationen såg ut som vilket berg som helst. Denna bild visad...
Som jordens näst närmaste granne (Venus ligger närmare) i solsystemet, och den mest jordlika, har Mars länge fascinerat författare av olika kaliber, och ett stort antal böcker och filmer utspelar sig där. Några filmer om Mars är Mars Attacks, Red Planet, Total Recall, Mission to Mars och The Martian. Även i dataspelsvärlden har Mars skapat intresse då den populära DOOM-serientill stor del utspelas där. I böcker är Mars huvudmiljö i till exempel Tarzanskaparen Edgar Rice Burroughs böcker om John Carter. I H.G. Wells bok Världarnas krig, som också filmats, och som framfördes i ett mycket realistiskt hörspel i radion i USA 1938 (vilket vållade panik, då det av vissa togs för sanning) nämns att de invaderande varelserna skulle ha kommit från Mars. Ray Bradbury har skrivit en novellsamling; Invasion på Mars, som också blivit film med bland andra Rock Hudson. Dennis Wheatley har också skrivit en bok med marsanknytning, Fångar på Mars. Den hör dock inte till hans mest kända verk. Birger Sj...