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  1. Middle chronology - Wikipedia › wiki › Middle_Chronology

    The Low Middle Chronology is in exact agreement with the tree-ring record of a volcanic eruption ( possibly the eruption at Santorini) around 1628-1626, whose record in the Venus tablets can be inferred from the higher atmospheric extinction levels observed in the 12th and 13th years of Ammi-Saduqa.

  2. Middle Ages - Wikipedia › wiki › Middle_Ages

    The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages . Population decline, counterurbanisation, the collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass ...

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    How is the date of middle chronology calculated?

    Why is the New Chronology shorter than the old chronology?

    How many seasons are there of the middle?

    When did the Middle Ages start and end?

  4. Timeline of Middle Eastern history - Wikipedia › wiki › Timeline_of_Middle_Eastern
    • Paleolithic Period
    • Neolithic Period
    • Ancient Near East
    • Islamic Middle East
    • Contemporary Middle East
    • See Also
    16000 BC – Kebaranperiod
    13050 to 7050 BC – Natufianculture
    12500 BC – The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found at Shubayqa 1, in Jordan
    11000 BC – The oldest known evidence of beer found in Mount Carmel
    10000 BC – Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
    10000 BC – earliest neolithic sanctuaries at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey
    9300 BC – first cultivating of wild emmer in Netiv HaGdud and other sites in Jordan by hunter gatherers
    10000 to 8800 BC — Shepherd Neolithic

    4th millennium BC

    1. 4000 to 3000 BC – domestication of the African wild ass in Egypt or Mesopotamia, producing the donkey 2. 4000 BC – city of Ur in Mesopotamia 3. 4000 to 3100 BC – Uruk period 4. 4000 to 3000 BC – Naqada culture on the Nile 5. 3760 BC – date of creationaccording to some interpretations of Jewish chronology 6. 3650 BC – The foundation of the city of Gaziantep 7. 3600 BC – first civilization in the world: Sumer (city-states) in modern-day southern Iraq 8. 3500 BC – City of Eblain Syria is foun...

    3rd millennium BC

    1. 3000 to 2000 BC – First domestication of the dromedaries in Somaliaand southern Arabia 2. 3000 to 2300 BC – First Kingdom of Ebla 3. 2900 to 2350 BC – First ziggurats in Sumer 4. 2900 to 2500 BC – First Kingdom of Mari 5. 2800 BC – Beginning of Uruk's decline 6. 2700 to 539 BC – Elam 7. 2600 to 2350 BC – early Dynastic III periodin Mesopotamia 8. 2600 to 2300 BC – Kingdom of Nagar 9. 2600 to 2025 BC – Early Assyrian Period 10. 2575 to 2150 BC – Old Kingdom of Egypt 11. 2560 BC – completion...

    2nd millennium BC

    1. 1900 BC – Hittites Old Kingdom in Anatolia 2. 1800 BC – civilization in Canaan 3. 1800 to 1200 BC – the emergence of the city of Ugaritwhen it ruled a coastal kingdom, trading with Egypt, Cyprus, the Aegean, Syria, the Hittites, and others 4. 1792 to 1750 BC – the reign of Hammurabi of the First Babylonian Dynasty, extended control throughout Mesopotamia, known for the Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest codes of law 5. 1775 to 1761 BC – the reign of Zimri-Lim of Mari, extended control...

    1st millennium AD

    1. 570 – Birth of Muhammad 2. 601 – Birth of Ali 3. 614 – Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish (Migration to Abyssinia) 4. 616 – Second migration to Abyssinia 5. 620 – Ascension to the heavens 6. 622 – Constitution of Medina, establishment of the first Islamic state 7. 624: Battle of Badr, expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina 8. 626 – Siege of Constantinople 9. 629 to 1050 – Arab–Byzantine wars 10. 630 – Conquest of Mecca 11. 632 – Death of Muhammad, Designation of the successo...

    2nd millennium AD

    1. 1004 – House of Knowledge built by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, said to have contained more than 1,600,000 books 2. 1024 to 1080 – Mirdasid dynasty of Aleppo 3. 1037 to 1194 – arrival of the Turkish Seljuq Empire, and the subsequent end of Arab dominance 4. 1044 or 1048 to 1123 – Al-Khayyam gave a classification of cubic equations with geometric solutions using conic sections, extracted roots using the Indian decimal system 5. 1096 to 1487 – Crusades; four crusader states are...

    2nd millennium AD

    1. 1789 to 1925 – Qajar Iran 2. 1798 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads a campaign in Egypt and Syria 3. 1828 to 1914 – Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 4. 1828 – Al-Waqa'i' al-Misriyya, oldest newspaper ever established in Egypt 5. 1830 to 1950 – Nahdaor "Arab cultural renaissance" 6. 1831 to 1833 – First Egyptian-Ottoman War, Egypt under Muhammad Ali seizes the Levantineprovinces 7. 1834 to 1835 – Syrian Peasant Revolt and Sidon Eyalet revolt take place in the Levant, but are suppres...

    3rd millennium AD

    1. 2000 – Israeli troops leave Lebanon 2. 2001 – Members of al-Qaeda attacked sites in the U.S. 3. 2003 – The 2003 Invasion of Iraq 4. 2004 to present – Shia insurgency in Yemen 5. 2005 – Syrian troops leave Lebanon as a result of the Cedar Revolution 6. 2006 – The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict; Saddam Hussein executed for "crimes against humanity" 7. 2010 – Arab Spring, which culminates in the Syrian Civil Warwith involvement of many regional powers to either support the Syrian opposition or...

  5. Short chronology - Wikipedia › wiki › Short_chronology
    • Early Bronze Age
    • Middle Bronze Age
    • Late Bronze Age
    • Iron Age
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Estimation of absolute dates becomes possible for the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.For the first half of the 3rd millennium, only very rough chronological matching of archaeological dates with written records is possible.

    The Old Assyrian / Old Babylonian period (20th to 15th centuries) First Dynasty of Isin After Ishbi-Erra of Isin breaks away from the declining Third Dynasty of Ur under Ibbi-Suen, Isin reaches its peak under Ishme-Dagan. Weakened by attacks from the upstart Babylonians, Isin eventually falls to its rival Larsa under Rim-Sin I. Kings of Larsa The chronology of the Kingdom of Larsa is based mainly on the Larsa King List (Larsa Dynastic List), the Larsa Date Lists, and a number of royal inscriptions and commercial records. The Larsa King List was compiled in Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi, conqueror of Larsa. It is suspected that the list elevated the first several Amorite Isinitegovernors of Larsa to kingship so as to legitimize the rule of the Amorite Babylonians over Larsa. After a period of Babylonian occupation, Larsa briefly breaks free in a revolt ended by the death of the last king, Rim-Sin II. First Babylonian dynasty (Dynasty I) Following the fall of the Ur III Dynast...

    The Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th centuries) Third Babylon Dynasty (Kassite) The Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. Some undetermined amount of time after the fall of Babylon, the Kassites established a new Babylonian dynasty. The Babylonian king list identifies 36 kings reigning 576 years, however, only about 18 names are legible. A few more were identified by inscriptions. There is some confusion in the middle part of the dynasty because of conflicts between the Synchronistic Chronicle and Chronicle P. The later kings are well attested from kudurru steles. Relative dating is from sychronisms with Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The dynasty ends with the defeat of Enlil-nadin-ahi by Elam. Mitanni Perhaps because the capital of Mitanni, Washukanni, has not yet been found, there are no available king lists, year lists, or royal inscriptions. Fortu...

    The Early Iron Age(12th to 7th centuries BC). While not subject to the long versus short dating issue, chronology in the Ancient Near East is not on a firm footing until the rise of the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian rulers in their respective regions. The dates, regnal lengths, and even the names of a number of rulers from that interim period are still unknown. To make matters worse, the few surviving records, such as the Synchronistic Chronicle, give conflicting data. Second Dynasty of Isin After the fall of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon to Elam, powerin the region, and control of Babylon, swung to the city-state of Isin. Assyria at this time was extremely weak, except during the reign of the powerful Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser I. Other polities in the area had yet to recover from the Bronze Age collapse. Middle-Assyrian period After the Middle Assyrian Kingdom there is an uncertain period in Assyrian history. The current cornerstone of chronology for this time is the Assyri...

    Schwartz, Glenn (2008). "Problems of Chronology: Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Syro-Levantine Region". In Aruz, Joan; Benzel, Kim; Evans, Jean M. (eds.). Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy...
    Newgrosh, Bernard (2007). Chronology at the Crossroads: The Late Bronze Age in Western Asia. Troubador Publishing. ISBN 1-906221-62-6.
    Bryce, Trevor (2005). The Kingdom of the Hittites (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-928132-7.
    Van De Mieroop, Marc (2006). A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323 BC. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-4911-6.
  6. New chronology (Fomenko) - Wikipedia › wiki › New_chronology_(Fomenko)
    • Central Concepts
    • History of New Chronology
    • Fomenko's Claims
    • Fomenko's Methods
    • Reception
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    The central concepts of the new chronology are derived from the ideas of Russian scholar Nikolai Morozov (1854–1946), although work by French scholar Jean Hardouin (1646–1729) can be viewed as an earlier predecessor. The new chronology is most commonly associated with Russian mathematician Anatoly Fomenko (born 1945), although published works on the subject are actually a collaboration between Fomenko and several other mathematicians. The concept is most fully explained in History: Fiction or Science?, originally published in Russian. The new chronology also contains a reconstruction, an alternative chronology, radically shorter than the standard historical timeline, because all ancient history is "folded" onto the Middle Ages. According to Fomenko's claims, the written history of humankind goes only as far back as AD800, there is almost no information about events between AD 800–1000, and most known historical events took place in AD 1000–1500. The new chronology is rejected by mai...

    The idea of chronologies that differ from the conventional chronology can be traced back to at least the early 17th century. Jean Hardouin then suggested that many ancient historical documents were much younger than commonly believed to be. In 1685 he published a version of Pliny the Elder's Natural History in which he claimed that most Greek and Roman texts had been forged by Benedictine monks. When later questioned on these results, Hardouin stated that he would reveal the monks' reasons in a letter to be revealed only after his death. The executors of his estate were unable to find such a document among his posthumous papers. In the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton, examining the current chronology of Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East, expressed discontent with prevailing theories and in The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended proposed one of his own, which, basing its study on Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica, changed the traditional dating of the Argona...

    Central to Fomenko's new chronology is his claim of the existence of a vast Slav-Turk empire, which he called the "Russian Horde", which he says played the dominant role in Eurasian history before the 17th century. The various peoples identified in ancient and medieval history, from the Scythians, Huns, Goths and Bulgars, through the Polyane, Duleby, Drevliane and Pechenegs, to in more recent times, the Cossacks, Ukrainians, and Belarusians, are nothing but elements of the single Russian Horde. Fomenko claims that the most probable prototype of the historical Jesus was Andronikos I Komnenos (allegedly AD 1152 to 1185), the emperor of Byzantium, known for his failed reforms, his traits and deeds reflected in 'biographies' of many real and imaginary persons. The historical Jesus is a composite figure and reflection of the Old-Testament prophet Elisha (850–800 BC?), Pope Gregory VII (1020?–1085), Saint Basil of Caesarea (330–379), and even Li Yuanhao (also known as Emperor Jingzong or...

    Statistical correlation of texts

    One of Fomenko's simplest methods is statistical correlation of texts. His basic assumption is that a text which describes a sequence of events will devote more space to more important events (for example, a period of war or an unrest will have much more space devoted to than a period of peaceful, non-eventful years), and that this irregularity will remain visible in other descriptions of the period. For each analysed text, a functionis devised which maps each year mentioned in the text with...

    Statistical correlation of dynasties

    In a somewhat similar manner, Fomenko compares two dynasties of rulers using statistical methods. First, he creates a databaseof rulers, containing relevant information on each of them. Then, he creates "survey codes" for each pair of the rulers, which contain a number which describes degree of the match of each considered property of two rulers. For example, one of the properties is the way of death: if two rulers were both poisoned, they get value of +1 in their property of the way of death...

    Astronomical evidence

    Fomenko examines astronomical events described in ancient texts and claims that the chronology is actually medieval. For example: 1. He says the mysterious drop in the value of the lunar acceleration parameter D" ("a linear combination of the [angular] accelerations of the Earth and Moon") between the years AD 700–1300, which the American astronomer Robert Newton had explained in terms of "non-gravitational" forces.By eliminating those anomalous early eclipses the new chronology produces a co...

    Fomenko's historical ideas have been universally rejected by mainstream scholars, who brand them as pseudoscience, but were popularized by former world chess champion Garry Kasparov. Billington writes that the theory "might have quietly blown away in the wind tunnels of academia" if not for Kasparov's writing in support of it in the magazine Ogoniok. Kasparov met Fomenko during the 1990s, and found that Fomenko's conclusions concerning certain subjects were identical to his own regarding the popular view (which is not the view of academics) that art and culture died during the Dark Ages and were not revived until the Renaissance. Kasparov also felt it illogical that the Romans and the Greeks living under the banner of Byzantiumcould fail to use the mounds of scientific knowledge left them by Ancient Greece and Rome, especially when it was of urgent military use. Kasparov does not support the reconstruction part of the new chronology. According to Sheiko, "Fomenko and his allies are...

    A.T. Fomenko et al.: History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 1, Introducing the problem. A criticism of the Scaligerian chronology. Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses an...
    A.T. Fomenko et al.: History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 2, The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. * Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. ISBN 2-913621-06-6
    A.T. Fomenko et al.: History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 3, Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. ISBN 2-913621-08-2
    A.T. Fomenko et al.: History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 4, Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. ISBN 2-913621-10-4
    The Theft of the Millenium[permanent dead link] [sic]
    Colavito, Jason (2004). "A debunking of Fomenko's theories: Who Lost the Middle Ages?". Skeptic. 11(2): 66.
  7. Helladic chronology - Wikipedia › wiki › Helladic_chronology

    Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history. It complements the Minoan chronology scheme devised by Sir Arthur Evans for the categorisation of Bronze Age artefacts from the Minoan civilization within a historical framework.

  8. Chronology:In The Middle, In The Middle, In The Middle - TMBW ... › wiki › Chronology:In_The_Middle,_In_The_Middle

    Retrieved from ",_In_The_Middle,_In_The_Middle&oldid=269759"

  9. The Middle Wiki | Fandom

    The Middle is an American sitcom about a lower-middle-class family living in Indiana facing the day-to-day struggles of home life, work, and raising children. The series premiered on September 30, 2009, on the ABC network and concluded on May 22, 2018, after nine seasons and 215 episodes. The series features Everybody Loves Raymond actress Patricia Heaton and Scrubs actor Neil Flynn. The ...

  10. Timeline - Tolkien Gateway › wiki › Timeline

    Jul 10, 2021 · See: Timeline/Fourth Age See also. Timeline of Frodo Baggins; Timeline of Aragorn Notes ↑ One Valian Year is equal to 9.582 Sun Years. References. The Tale of Years (The Lord of the Rings) The Annals of Aman (Morgoth's Ring) The Grey Annals (The War of the Jewels) The Silmarillion; Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth

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