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  1. Neoplatonism - Wikipedia › wiki › Neoplatonism

    Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the second century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

  2. Neoplatonism and Christianity - Wikipedia › wiki › Neoplatonism_and_Christianity

    Neoplatonism was a major influence on Christian theology throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West.

  3. Neoplatonism - Wikipedia › wiki › Neoplatonism

    Neoplatonism is a modren term uised tae designate a tradeetion o filosofie that arose in the 3rd century AD an perseestit till shortly efter the closin o the Platonic Academy in Athens in AD 529 bi Justinian I. Neoplatonists war hivily influenced bi Plato, but an aa bi the Platonic tradeetion that thrived during the sax centuries which separatit the first o the Neoplatonists frae Plato.

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  5. Neoplatonism and Gnosticism - Wikipedia › wiki › Neoplatonism_and_Gnosticism
    • Overview
    • Gnosticism
    • Platonism
    • Philosophical relations
    • Neoplatonist objections

    Gnosticism refers to a collection of religious groups originating in Jewish religiosity in Alexandria in the first few centuries CE. Neoplatonism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century, based on the teachings of Plato and some of his early followers. While Gnosticism was influenced by Middle Platonism, neoplatonists from the third century onward rejected Gnosticism.

    Gnosticism originated in the late first century CE in nonrabbinical Jewish sects and early Christian sects, and many of the Nag Hammadi texts make reference to Judaism, in some cases with a violent rejection of the Jewish God.

    By the third century Plotinus had shifted Platonist thought far enough that modern scholars consider the period a new movement called "neoplatonism".

    Gnostics structured their world of transcendent being by ontological distinctions. The plenitude of the divine world emerges from a sole high deity by emanation, radiation, unfolding and mental self-reflection. The technique of self-performable contemplative mystical ascent towards and beyond a realm of pure being, which is rooted in Plato's Symposium and was common in Gnostic thought, was also expressed by Plotinus.

    In the third century CE both Christianity and neoplatonism reject and turn against Gnosticism, with neoplatonists as Plotinus, Porphyry and Amelius attacking the Sethians. John D. Turner believes that this double attack led to Sethianism fragmentation into numerous smaller groups.

  6. Neoplatonism - Wikipedia › wiki › Neoplatonism

    Neoplatonism este denumirea dată fazei finale a tradiției platoniciene, inaugurată de gândirea lui Plotin, durând până în secolul VI d. Hr. când ultimul bastion platonician, Școala din Atena, a fost desființată de împăratul bizantin Iustinian.

  7. Category:Neoplatonism - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:Neoplatonism

    Pages in category "Neoplatonism" The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  8. Neoplatonism | Religion-wiki | Fandom › wiki › Neoplatonism

    Neoplatonism is generally a metaphysical and epistemological philosophy. Neoplatonism is a form of idealistic monism (also called theistic monism) and combines elements of Polytheism (see Monistic-polytheism).

  9. Template:Neoplatonism - Wikipedia › wiki › Template:Neoplatonism

    {{Neoplatonism |expanded=listname}} or, if enabled, {{Neoplatonism |listname}} …where listname is one of the following (do not include any quotemarks): concepts

  10. Neoplatonism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) › entries › neoplatonism
    • Historical Orientation: Antiquity
    • The One
    • Absolute Consciousness
    • Soul and Nature
    • Matter
    • Ethics
    • Later Developments in Antiquity
    • Influence

    Rightly or wrongly, the Egyptian-born Plotinus (204/5–270) iscommonly regarded as the founder of Neoplatonism. He was a pupil ofthe Alexandrian philosopher Ammonius Saccas (3ndcentury), who reportedly did notpublish anything and remains one of the most enigmatic philosophers ofall antiquity. Around 245, at the age of 40, Plotinus moved fromAlexandria to Rome and founded a school of philosophy there. At first,his instruction too was entirely oral, until his most talented pupil,Porphyry, persuaded him to commit his seminars to the page. AfterPlotinus’ death, Porphyry edited and published these writings,having arranged them in a collection of six books consisting of nineessays each (the so-called “Enneads” or“nines”). By any standard of intellectual prowess, Plotinus is one of theintellectual giants of antiquity, on a par with the likes of Plato,Aristotle, and Chrysippus, even if modernity is still hesitant toaccord him such an exalted status. As in the case of his preeminentprecursors...

    What was it that made the radically top-down idealism of theNeoplatonists so appealing? Disregarding in this context thereligious-sentimental appeal Neoplatonism undoubtedly must have hadand perhaps still has, its philosophicalattractiveness andsignificance lies in the fact that it offered a maximum of explanatorypower on the basis of just one metaphysical principle. Even though thesystem coheres in such a way that it is possible to approach it frommany angles, it is perhaps best to begin at the top of the ontologicalpyramid and to return to the question posed earlier: How is itpossible to explain the world’s emergence from a single divineprinciple of consciousness? It may be useful first to state that the pagan Neoplatonists werenot creationists. That is to say, whatever account they were givingabout the universe’s origin, this narrative was not to bemisunderstood as recounting a creation in time or at the verybeginning of time. Instead, they speculated that the process of theemerg...

    In accordance with the Platonic-Aristotelian commitment to Mindover Matter the Neoplatonists’ answer to this question was thatthe outer activity and effect of the First must be nous, adifficult and ambiguous concept commonly translated as“Intellect”. It seems preferable to translate the termnousin an experientially more concrete and accessible way aspure and absolute “Consciousness”. According toNeoplatonic theory, Consciousness would not be some kind of emergentproperty of material constituents arranged in a certain way, butrather be the first effect of the activity of the One, the mostsupreme form of reality (since the One was posited to be beyondBeing), a kind of pre-embodied power of cognition assuch. Neoplatonists referred to Consciousness as the second“Hypostasis”, a term that would have a long and complexhistory as it acquired new and related meanings in Christiancontexts. “Hypostasis” is an abstract noun derived from averb meaning “to place oneself under or beneath”, with th...

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, structural anddispositional diversities present in the inanimate material worldconverge towards irreversible entropy and disorder. In the biosphere,however, we witness a tendency to ever increasing diversification ofnatural kinds and species. From a Neoplatonic point of view, thislatter fact is readily explained by the entirely non-Darwiniansupposition of eternal Forms of natural kinds in the hypostasis ofConsciousness which gradually emerge in the world, limited by spaceand time, in some sort of evolutionary organic process. As has alreadybeen pointed out, the Neoplatonists assumed as axiomatic that nothingcould come to be here below that is not prefigured paradigmatically inthe intelligible realm. Although one might think that the phenomenon of evolution militatesagainst Neoplatonic theory, it is actually compatible with it; to somedegree, it is precisely what we should expect as the empirical upshotof such metaphysical assumptions. M...

    Without light, it would not make any sense to speak of darkness. Infact, there would be no such thing as darkness, since darkness is, ifit is anything, light’s absence and opposite. In the same way asdarkness is a by-product of light, so matter, the Neoplatonistsreasoned, is nothing but a by-product of the dynamic emanation of theFirst. In fact, it is the limit at which the energy transmitted in thechain of inner and outer activities at the various levels of realityexhausts itself and comes to an end. Just as darkness has no capacityto make itself visible, in the same way matter no longer has any inneractivity that could give rise to a further outer activity. As such, itis merely passive, and the eternal process of consecutive productionof ever lower levels of reality necessarily comes to an end. Butimportantly for us, it is the realm at which the activity of Soulinformed by Consciousness becomes phenomenal and perceptible. It wouldbe wrong to say that matter does not exist at all,...

    As human beings we are, with our bodies, part of the materialworld; but importantly, we are living organisms that can placeourselves in opposition to the needs and concerns of the body andreflect upon our own condition. Nothing just material would be able dothat, according to the Neoplatonists, and therefore we have what theancients called a “soul”. Moreover, our souls operate on alevel of consciousness and intelligence that surpasses the cognitionof all other creatures. Finally, just as everything else that hasbeing, we are individual units and participate, again, as theNeoplatonists would express it, in the form of Unity. Looked at from this point of view, human existence is a strikingrepresentation of the cosmos as a whole, a microcosm in which alllevels of being (Unity, Consciousness, Soul, Nature, Matter) arecombined into one organic individual. The Neoplatonists took this tobe a clear indication that we, just like the entire cosmic edifice,“came from above”. A human being is t...

    At a time when the considered wisdom of Greece and Rome came underincreasing pressure to re-articulate its commitments in the face ofwaves of novel movements that lay claim to revelatory truth, theNeoplatonists too strove to refine their teachings and to delineatethe metaphysical architecture of the world as they saw it. No longerwould it suffice to hold forth on philosophical issues, as Plato,Cicero, and to some extent Plotinus had done, in a serious yetexploratory and protreptic spirit. In order to be heard in anincreasingly competitive marketplace of ideas teeming with holy men ofevery kind and temperament, views had to be laid out clearly and insystematic fashion. In some of its later manifestations, like Stoicismand Epicureanism before it, Neoplatonism drifted towards scholasticismand reveled in dogmatic system building. Along the way, all kinds of refinements and modifications ofnomenclature were introduced. Distinctions were drawn up within thehypostases of Consciousness and...

    It is an undeniable fact, although nowadays rarely acknowledged, thatthe general outlook and the principal doctrines of the Neoplatonistsproved exceedingly influential throughout the entire history ofwestern philosophy. Through Augustine (354–430) in the West andthe 4th-century Cappadocian Fathers (Basil, Gregory ofNyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus) in the East as well as thepseudo-epigraphic writings of Dionysius the Areopagite (early6th century), Neoplatonism profoundly influenced theemergence of mainstream and not so mainstream Christian theology (JohnScotus Eriugena, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, Meister Eckhart). Inaddition, by way of a pseudo-epigraphical treatiseentitled Theology of Aristotle, Neoplatonic thoughtfacilitated the integration of ancient philosophy and science intoboth Islam (especially through Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi and Avicenna [IbnSina]) and Judaism (Maimonides). During the Renaissance, ancient Greek learning, and Neoplatonism inparticular, experienced a dramatic reviva...

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