Planned resistance movements. The Auxiliary Units, organized by Colonel Colin Gubbins as a potential British resistance movement against a possible invasion of the British Isles by Nazi forces, note that it was the only resistance movement established prior to invasion, albeit the invasion never came. Volunteer Fighting Corps (Japan)
The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the word...
Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force...
- Geographies of resistance
When geographies of resistance are discussed, it is often...
Resistance movement From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A resistance movement is an organized movement by some portion of the civil population of a country to fight against an occupying power and to cause civil disorder. Sometimes they could be a nonviolent resistance (sometimes called civil resistance), or the use of force.
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Pages in category "Resistance movements" The following 65 pages are in this category, out of 65 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
On 26 January 1943, Moulin persuaded the three main resistance groups in the south of France — Franc-Tireur, Liberation and Combat — to unite as the MUR (Mouvements Unis de Résistance or United Resistance Movement), whose armed wing was the AS (Armée Secrète or Secret Army).
- June 1940 – October 1944
- International resistance
The organization of underground resistance movements in Auschwitz concentration camp began in the second half of 1940, shortly after the camp became operational in May that year. In September 1940 Witold Pilecki, a Polish army captain, arrived in the camp. Using the name Tomasz Serafiński, Pilecki had allowed himself to be captured by Germans in a street round up with the goal of having himself sent to Auschwitz to gather information and organize resistance inside. Under Pilecki's direction the
After the western part of the country was annexed by Nazi Germany during the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland, Oświęcim was located administratively in the German Province of Upper Silesia, Regierungsbezirk Kattowitz. Auschwitz was first suggested as the location of a concentration camp for Polish nationals by SS-Oberführer Arpad Wigand, an aide to Higher SS and Police Leader for Silesia, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski. Bach-Zelewski had been searching for a new site to intern people in the ...
By the end of 1942, with the camp now housing prisoners from all across Europe, other resistance cells appeared, usually formed along national and ethnic lines. In addition to a Jewish resistance group, there existed Czech, Russian, Yugoslav, French, Austrian and German ones, mostly with a leftist or socialist political bent. An international organization, Kampfgruppe Auschwitz, was created in 1943. In 1944, together with the Home Army, the Kampfgruppe set up an overall Auschwitz Military Counci
- Formation and structure
The Nordic Resistance Movement is a Pan-Nordic neo-Nazi movement and in Sweden a political party. It is established in Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark, and also has members in Iceland. It has been banned in Finland since 2019. The NRM has been described as a terrorist organization due to their aim of abolishing democracy along with their paramilitary activities, weapons caches and connections to proscribed terrorist organizations such as the Russian Imperial Movement and National Action.
In December 1997, Klas Lund and some other former members of the White Aryan Resistance – a militant neo-Nazi network active from 1991 to 1993 – were released from prison after being convicted of robberies, bombings and killings, among other things. They formed the Swedish Resistance Movement together with individuals working with the neo-Nazi magazine Folktribunen and members of Nationell Ungdom, a neofascist and openly racist organisation known for the murder of the anarchist Björn ...
The aim of Nordic Resistance Movement is to establish a totalitarian neo-Nazi Nordic State "consisting of the Nordic countries Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and eventually even the Baltic countries". The organization itself describes its goals differently: “Although the Resistance Movement strives to create a state with authoritarian leadership, it is also our goal to develop and secure freedom and democracy. The Nordic National Socialist Republic will be a leader state, but ...
The Swedish Resistance Movement was founded by Klas Lund. In 2020 its leader was Simon Lindberg, and its political wing was managed by Pär Öberg. It is known for its opposition to non-white immigration to Sweden. The SMR is considered a central actor in Sweden's white power movement. In November 2003 the Swedish Security Service raided homes of leading members, among them Lund, who was later sentenced to prison for illegal possession of firearms. In May 2006, the Swedish Resistance ...
Suomen Vastarintaliike is the Finnish branch of the Nordic Resistance Movement. It was founded by Esa Henrik Holappa, who would later abandon neo-Nazism and leave the group. Its current leader is Antti Niemi. Some of the group's activities include planting of propaganda posters and organizing demonstrations. The members also participate in hand to hand combat and shooting training arranged by the organization. The group also advocates pan-Finno-Ugrism, or "Kindred-folk ideology", and unification
Norske Motstandsbevegelsen is the Norwegian chapter of the Nordic Resistance Movement, founded and chaired by Haakon Forwald, former member of Dissection and Misanthropic Luciferian Order. They are organized in four subchapters in Norway. In 2014 Norwegian police confiscated illegal submachine guns and automatic rifles from a member. In 2019, another member was arrested after hijacking an ambulance, trying to ram a police car and driving into a crowd. Inside the ambulance the police discovered a
- Asserting legitimacy of exiled Norwegian government
- Initial defence
- Armed resistance
- Civil disobedience
The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945. It took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of Vidkun Quisling's pro-Nazi regime and Josef Terboven's military administration The initial defence in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganised, but succeeded in allowing the government to escape capture The more organised military defence...
The Norwegian government of Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold, with the exception of foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defence Birger Ljungberg, was largely caught by surprise when it became apparent in the early hours of 9 April 1940 that Nazi Germany had launched an invasion of Norway. Although some of the country's gold reserve had already been removed from Oslo, there were few contingency plans for such an invasion.
Although some politicians across the political spectrum had advocated strengthening the country's defence capabilities, a longstanding policy of disarmament following World War I had left the Norwegian military underfunded and undertrained by the late 1930s. As a result, forces in Southern Norway were largely unprepared for the German invasion, and the invading German army met little initial resistance.
Several Norwegian military units that had mobilised as a precautionary measure in Northern Norway during the Winter War, in cooperation with Polish, French and British forces, launched several counterattacks with moderate success. Allied forces had several successes in Northern Norway, but were redirected for the futile defense of France. While Northern Norway ultimately fell, efforts there allowed the Norwegian government, including the Norwegian royal family, to escape and maintain the legitim
Although Norway did not have any major battles beyond those of the Norwegian Campaign, a number of military operations served to subvert the Nazi authorities and contribute to the larger war effort. Milorg started out as a small sabotage unit and ended up building a full military force in time for the liberation. Company Linge was a special operations unit that specialised in coastal insertions and combat. There were repeated raids in Lofoten, Måløy, and other coastal areas.
Of lesser military importance was the distribution of illegal newspapers. The purpose of this was twofold: it counteracted Nazi propaganda, and it maintained nationalistic, anti-German feelings in the population at large. It has been suggested that combating the illegal press expended German resources out of proportion to the illegal media's actual effects.
- 10 June 1940 – 7 May 1945
- German forces surrender in Norway, Liberation of Norway
- Geographies of Resistance
- Controversy Regarding Definition
- Common Weapons
- Examples of Resistance Movements
The modern usage of the term "Resistance" originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, especially the French Resistance. The term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries. Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II, (albeit often called by different names), and there have been many subsequent to it – for example in struggles against colonialism and foreign military occupations. "Resistance" has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country.
Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, to industrial sabotage and guerrilla warfare, or even conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, even when such attacks target only the military or security forces. Resistance during World War II was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period. Although the United...
When we talk about geographies of resistance, we often take for granted that resistance takes place in the spaces where domination, power, or oppression is present. So, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as “power.” In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile’s (1997) “Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance,” Geographies of Resistance shows: We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in rela...
Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication 1-02, the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability". In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist (change) the policies of a government or occupying power. This may be accomplished through violent or non-violent means. In this view, a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it; and the correct[according to whom?] military term for removing or overthrowing a government is an insurgency. However, in reality many resistance movements have aimed to displace a particular ruler, especially if that ruler has gained or retained power illegally.
Partisans often use captured weapons taken from their enemies, or weapons that have been stolen or smuggled in. During the Cold War, partisans often received arms from either the Western countries or the Communist bloc. Western backed forces would receive weapons such as the American M-16 assault rifle and the FIM-92 Stinger missile launcher. Communist backed forces would receive the Soviet AK-47 assault rifle (and its variants) and RPG-7s. They also may use improvised weapons such as Molotov cocktails or IEDsand maybe even their own weapons such as the Sten.
The following examples are of groups that have been considered or would identify themselves as resistance groups,Polish Resistance movements. These are mostly, but not exclusively, of armed resistance movements. For movements and phases of activity involving non-violent methods, see civil resistance and nonviolent resistance.Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian,Martinus Nijhoff ISBN 0-7923-2245-2.Ticehurst, Rupert. The Martens Clause and the Laws of Armed Conflict 30 April 1997, International Review of the Red Cross no 317, p. 125-134 ISSN 1560-7755
- Resistance by Italian armed forces
- Underground resistance
The Italian resistance movement is an umbrella term for Italian resistance groups during World War II. It was opposed to the forces of Nazi Germany as well as Nazi Germany's Italian puppet state regime, the Italian Social Republic, especially following the German invasion and military occupation of Italy between September 1943 and April 1945. Known as partisans, the brutal conflict that the Italian resistance fighters took part in is referred to as the National Liberation War or as the Italian C
Armed resistance to the German occupation following the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces of 3 September 1943 began with Italian regular forces: the Italian Armed Forces and the Carabinieri military police. The period's best-known battle broke out in Rome the day th
In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without orders from higher echelons, were disarmed and shipped to POW camps in the Third Reich. However, some garrisons stationed in occupied Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia and Italy fought the Germans. Admirals Inigo Camp
Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around 650,000-700,000, of whom between 40,000 and 50,000 later died in the camps. Most refused cooperation with the Third Reich despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the King. Their former allies designa
In the first major act of resistance following the German occupation, Italian partisans and local resistance fighters liberated the city of Naples through a chaotic popular rebellion. The people of Naples revolted and held strong against Nazi occupiers in the last days of September 1943. The popular mass uprising and resistance in Naples against the occupying Nazi German forces, known as the Four days of Naples, consisted of four days of continuous open warfare and guerrilla actions by locals ag
On April 19, 1945, the CLN called for an insurrection. In Bologna, the occupying Nazi German forces and their few remaining Italian Fascist allies were openly attacked by Italian partisans on April 19, and by April 21, the city of Bologna was liberated by the partisans, the Itali
A score-settling campaign ensued against pro-German collaborators, thousands of whom were rounded up by the vengeful partisans. Controversially, many of those detainees were speedily court martialed, condemned and shot, or killed without trial. Minister of Interior Mario Scelba l
According to a book published in 1955 by an Italian ministerial committee on the tenth anniversary of the Liberation, casualties in Italy among the Resistance movement amounted to 35,828 partisans killed in action or executed, and 21,168 partisans mutilated or left disabled by th
- Allies, Kingdom of Italy (1943–1945)
- Various:, Generally anti-fascism, Mainly various forms of leftism, communism, socialism, and anarchism;, As well as: Republicanism and liberalism, To a lesser extent:, Liberal socialism, Christian democracy, Catholic anti-fascism / Catholic anti-Nazism, Catholic socialism, Social liberalism, Social democracy, Monarchism
- related to: Resistance movement wikipedia