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  1. A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language ( first language or L1) of the speaker, but is learned later (usually as a foreign language, but it can be another language used in the speaker's home country). A speaker's dominant language, which is the language a speaker uses most or is most comfortable with, is ...

  2. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A second language is a language that a person learns in addition to their first language. A second language may be learned in a formal or informal way, such as at school or in a family. A person may speak two or more second languages. Adults do not learn languages the same way that children do.

  3. t. e. Second-language acquisition ( SLA ), sometimes called second-language learning — otherwise referred to as L2 ( language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.

    • Terminology and Types
    • Difficulties For Learners
    • Social Challenges and Benefits
    • Peer Tutoring For ESL Students
    • Exams For Learners
    • Qualifications For Teachers
    • Professional Associations and Unions
    • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • External Links

    The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly use...

    Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because Ge...

    Class placement

    ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college-level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students hav...

    Dropout rates

    Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%.High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up...

    Access to higher education

    ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This resu...

    Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level. The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case, the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingualtutors are given ...

    Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: 1. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world's most popular English test for higher education and immigration. It is managed by the British Council, Cambridge Assessment English and IDP Education. It is offered in Acade...

    Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. There are also different qualifications for those who manage or direct TESOL programs

    TESOL International Association (TESOL) is a professional organizationbased in the United States. In addition, TESOL International Association has more than 100 statewide and regional affiliates in...
    The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
    Professional organizations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece,...
    The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.

    Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK. See further discussion is Terminology, and typesabove.

    English as a Second Language at Curlie
    Limited English Proficiency - Interagency site of the Federal Government of the United States
    • Overview
    • Symposium on Second Language Writing
    • At TESOL, Inc.
    • Second Language Writing Transfer (L2) Theory
    • At the Conference on College Composition and Communication
    • Perspectives and theories

    Second language writing is the study of writing performed by non-native speakers/writers of a language as a second or foreign language. In addition to disseminating research through the Journal of Second Language Writing, scholars in the field regularly participate in three academic conferences, the Symposium on Second Language Writing, the TESOL c...

    The Symposium on Second Language Writing, which began in 1998 at Purdue University, is an international conference on second language writing. It was a biennial event through 2006, and annual after that. It has been hosted at Purdue University six times, but the 2007 symposium was held in Japan; the 2009 at Arizona State University, the 2010 in Mur...

    In June 2005, the TESOL Board added of a new interest section on writing. The Second Language Writing IS; it held its first meeting in Tampa in March 2006, covering topics ranging from "Broadening Perspectives in Second Language Writing" and "Alternative Placement Methods for Second Language Writers" to "Issues in Technologies for L2 Composition Cl...

    Some notable scholars in the field of Second Language writing transfer include Mark Andrew James and GitaDasBender. First, Depalma and Ringer define how L2 writing transfer was only defined as individuals reusing previous writing knowledge from one context to another in a second language context. In particular, there are two examples outlined by Ja...

    Second language writing scholars also participate in a Special Interest Group on the field at the Conference on College Composition and Communication. In addition, the organization has a Committee on Second Language Writing to bridge work between CCCC and TESOL to involve more scholars in the field's discussions. Much recent attention focuses on th...

    Second language writing development has been investigated from many different perspectives. Manchón's edited book on L2 Writing Development: Multiple Perspectives provides an insight in which perspective second language writing development can be investigated. Her edited books includes studies on L2 writing development from dynamic systems theory, ...

  4. Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person's first language, including the learning of third, fourth, and subsequent languages. It is also called second-language learning, foreign language acquisition, and L2 acquisition . Contents 1 What is second-language acquisition? 2 Branches of second-language acquisition

  5. The main purpose of theories of second-language acquisition (SLA) is to shed light on how people who already know one language learn a second language. The field of second-language acquisition involves various contributions, such as linguistics, sociolinguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and education.

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