From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The telecommunications industries within the sector of information and communication technology is made up of all telecommunications / telephone companies and internet service providers and plays the crucial role in the evolution of mobile communications and the information society.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_industry
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice, but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A replica of one of Claude Chappe 's semaphore towers (optical telegraph) in Nalbach, Germany The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In the 1790s, the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe.
- Market segmentation
- Recent developments
The telecommunications industries within the sector of information and communication technology is made up of all telecommunications/telephone companies and internet service providers and plays the crucial role in the evolution of mobile communications and the information society. Traditional telephone calls continue to be the industry's biggest revenue generator, but thanks to advances in network technology, telecom today is less about voice and increasingly about text and images. High-speed in
Of all the customer markets, residential and small business markets are the toughest. With hundreds of players in the market, competitors rely heavily on price; success rests largely on brand name strength and investment in efficient billing systems. The corporate market remains the industry's favorite. Big corporate customers are concerned mostly about the quality and reliability of their telephone calls and data delivery while being less price-sensitive than residential customers. Multinationa
The telecommunications sector has seen a large increase in the recent years. Whereas in 2015 there were 3.3 billion active mobile broadband subscriptions worldwide, in 2020 there were around 7.7 billion. This increase was due, in part at least, to the deployment of 4G LTE. During the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommunications supported the fight against the virus and the resilience of economy by various developments, including supporting the developments of heat maps showing the expansion of the viru
Telecommunication (from two words, tele meaning 'from far distances' and communication meaning to share information) is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags, or a mirror to flash sunlight.
- Network structure
- Capacity and speed
A telecommunications network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that are used to exchange messages between the nodes. The links may use a variety of technologies based on the methodologies of circuit switching, message switching, or packet switching, to pass messages and signals. Multiple nodes may cooperate to pass the message from an originating node to the destination node, via multiple network hops. For this routing function, each node in the network is assigned a network address fo
In general, every telecommunications network conceptually consists of three parts, or planes (so called because they can be thought of as being, and often are, separate overlay network 1. The data plane (also user plane, bearer plane, or forwarding plane) carries the network's users' traffic, the actual payload. 2. The control plane carries control information (also known as signaling). 3. The management plane carries the operations, administration and management traffic required for network man
In analogy to the improvements in the speed and capacity of digital computers, provided by advances in semiconductor technology and expressed in the bi-yearly doubling of transistor density, which is estimated by Moore's law, the capacity and speed of telecommunications networks has followed similar advances, for similar reasons. In telecommunication, this is expressed in Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm in 2004. This empirical law holds that the bandwidth of telecommunicati
Telecommunication is communication at a distance bi technological means, particularly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves.
- LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD
- Voice Calls
- Frequency Bands
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and is a registered trademark owned by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for the wireless data communications technology and a development of the GSM/UMTS standards. However, other nations and companies do play an active role in the LTE project. The goal of LTE was to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (digital signal processing) techniques and modulations that were developed around the turn of the millennium. A further goal was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with significantly reduced transfer latency compared with the 3G architecture. The LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so that it must be operated on a separate radio spectrum. LTE was first proposed in 2004 by Japan's NTT Docomo, with studies on the standard officially commenced in 2005. In May 2007, the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) alliance was founded a...
3GPP standard development timeline
1. In 2004, NTT Docomo of Japanproposes LTE as the international standard. 2. In September 2006, Siemens Networks (today Nokia Networks) showed in collaboration with Nomor Research the first live emulation of an LTE network to the media and investors. As live applications two users streaming an HDTVvideo in the downlink and playing an interactive game in the uplink have been demonstrated. 3. In February 2007, Ericssondemonstrated for the first time in the world, LTE with bit rates up to 144 M...
Carrier adoption timeline
Most carriers supporting GSM or HSUPA networks can be expected to upgrade their networks to LTE at some stage. A complete list of commercial contracts can be found at: 1. August 2009: Telefónica selected six countries to field-test LTE in the succeeding months: Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe, and Brazil and Argentina in Latin America. 2. On November 24, 2009: Telecom Italia announced the first outdoor pre-commercial experimentation in the world, deployed i...
Long-Term Evolution Time-Division Duplex (LTE-TDD), also referred to as TDD LTE, is a 4G telecommunications technology and standard co-developed by an international coalition of companies, including China Mobile, Datang Telecom, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia Solutions and Networks, Qualcomm, Samsung, and ST-Ericsson. It is one of the two mobile data transmission technologies of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology standard, the other being Long-Term Evolution Frequency-Division Duplex (LTE-FDD). While some companies refer to LTE-TDD as "TD-LTE" for familiarity with TD-SCDMA, there is no reference to that acronym anywhere in the 3GPP specifications. There are two major differences between LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD: how data is uploaded and downloaded, and what frequency spectra the networks are deployed in. While LTE-FDD uses paired frequencies to upload and download data, LTE-TDD uses a single frequency, alternating between uploading and downloading data through time. The ratio between uploads a...
Much of the LTE standard addresses the upgrading of 3G UMTS to what will eventually be 4G mobile communications technology. A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transitions from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network, to an all-IP flat architecture system. E-UTRAis the air interface of LTE. Its main features are: 1. Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment category(with 4×4 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum). Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice-centric class up to a high-end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth. 2. Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower latencies for handover and connection setup time than with previous radio access technologies. 3. Improved support for mobility, exemplified by suppor...
The LTE standard supports only packet switching with its all-IP network. Voice calls in GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000 are circuit switched, so with the adoption of LTE, carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call network.Three different approaches sprang up: Voice over LTE (VoLTE) 1. Main article: Voice over LTE Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) 1. In this approach, LTE just provides data services, and when a voice call is to be initiated or received, it will fall back to the circuit-switched domain. When using this solution, operators just need to upgrade the MSC instead of deploying the IMS, and therefore, can provide services quickly. However, the disadvantage is longer call setup delay. Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE) 1. In this approach, the handset works simultaneously in the LTE and circuit switched modes, with the LTE mode providing data services and the circuit switched mode providing the voice service. This is a solution solely based on the handset, which does not have s...
The LTE standard covers a range of many different bands, each of which is designated by both a frequency and a band number: 1. North America – 600, 700, 750, 850, 1900, 2100(AWS), 2300 (WCS), 2500, 2600, 3500, 5000 MHz (bands 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 48, 66, 71) 2. Latin America and Caribbean – 600, 700, 850, 900, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3500, 5000 MHz (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 17, 25, 26, 28, 29, 38, 40, 41, 46, 48, 66, 71) 3. Europe – 450, 700, 800, 900, 1500, 1800, 2100, 2300, 2600, 3500, 3700 MHz (bands 1, 3, 7, 8, 20, 22, 28, 31, 32, 38, 40, 42, 43) 4. Asia – 450, 700, 800, 850, 900, 1500, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3500 MHz (bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 18, 19, 21, 26, 28, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42) 5. Africa – 700, 800, 850, 900, 1800, 2100, 2500, 2600 MHz (bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 20, 28, 41) 6. Oceania (incl. Australia and New Zealand) – 700, 800, 850,...
According to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute's (ETSI) intellectual property rights (IPR) database, about 50 companies have declared, as of March 2012, holding essential patents covering the LTE standard. The ETSI has made no investigation on the correctness of the declarations however, so that "any analysis of essential LTE patents should take into account more than ETSI declarations."Independent studies have found that about 3.3 to 5 percent of all revenues from handset manufacturers are spent on standard-essential patents. This is less than the combined published rates, due to reduced-rate licensing agreements, such as cross-licensing.Agilent Technologies, LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges, John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6Beaver, Paul, "What is TD-LTE?", RF&Microwave Designline, September 2011.E. Dahlman, H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, Y. Jading, J. Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, "The 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation", IEEE Vehicular Techno...Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, 3G Evolution – HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5
Telecommunications liberalisation. The telecommunications liberalisation process started in Turkey in 2004 after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority, and is still ongoing as of May 2013. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony, long distance telephony and Internet access.
- 16.5 million, 18th in world (2009), 12.3 million (Q3 2020)
- AM 1, FM 102, shortwave 1 (2014)
- 62.8 million, 17th in world (2009), 80 million (2018), 82.2 million (Q3 2020)
The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies. Established in 17th May of 1865 as the International Telegraph Union it is one of the oldest international organizations in operation.