A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. The term is derived from Greek: τῆλε and φωνή, together meaning distant voice. A common short form of ...
- Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell (/ ˈ ɡ r eɪ. ə m /; March 3, 1847 –...
- Basic principles
A traditional landline telephone system, also known as plain...
- Details of operation
The landline telephone contains a switchhook and an alerting...
- Alexander Graham Bell
Antonio Meucci, 1854, constructed telephone-like devices. Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876. Elisha Gray, 1876, designed a telephone using a water microphone in Highland Park, Illinois. Tivadar Puskás proposed the telephone switchboard exchange in 1876.
- Early Development
- Electro-Magnetic Transmitters and Receivers
- Variable Resistance Transmitters
- Improvements to The Early Telephone
- Memorial to The Invention
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
The concept of the telephone dates back to the string telephone or lover's telephone that has been known for centuries, comprising two diaphragms connected by a taut string or wire. Sound waves are carried as mechanical vibrations along the string or wire from one diaphragm to the other. The classic example is the tin can telephone, a children's toy made by connecting the two ends of a string to the bottoms of two metal cans, paper cups or similar items. The essential idea of this toy was that a diaphragm can collect voice sounds from the voice sounds for reproduction at a distance. One precursor to the development of the electromagnetic telephone originated in 1833 when Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber invented an electromagnetic device for the transmission of telegraphic signals at the University of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, helping to create the fundamental basis for the technology that was later used in similar telecommunication devices. Gauss's and Weber's invent...
Elisha Gray, of Highland Park, Illinois, also devised a tone telegraph of this kind about the same time as La Cour. In Gray's tone telegraph, several vibrating steel reeds tuned to different frequencies interrupted the current, which at the other end of the line passed through electromagnets and vibrated matching tuned steel reeds near the electromagnet poles. Gray's "harmonic telegraph", with vibrating reeds, was used by the Western Union Telegraph Company. Since more than one set of vibrati...
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bellhad pioneered a system called visible speech, developed by his father, to teach deaf children. In 1872 Bell founded a school in Boston to train teachers of the deaf. The school subsequently became part of Boston University, where Bell was appointed professor of vocal physiology in 1873. As Professor of Vocal Physiology at Boston University, Bell was engaged in training teachers in the art of instructing the deaf how to speak and experimented with the Leon Scott phonautogr...
The first successful bi-directional transmission of clear speech by Bell and Watson was made on March 10, 1876, when Bell spoke into the device, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you." and Watson complied with the request. Bell tested Gray's liquid transmitter design in this experiment, but only after Bell's patent was granted and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" (Bell's words) could be electrically tra...
Water microphone – Elisha Gray
Elisha Gray recognized the lack of fidelity of the make-break transmitter of Reis and Bourseul and reasoned by analogy with the lover's telegraph, that if the current could be made to more closely model the movements of the diaphragm, rather than simply opening and closing the circuit, greater fidelity might be achieved. Gray filed a patent caveat with the US patent office on February 14, 1876, for a liquid microphone. The device used a metal needle or rod that was placed – just barely – into...
Carbon microphone – Thomas Edison, Edward Hughes, Emile Berliner
The carbon microphone was independently developed around 1878 by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US. Although Edison was awarded the first patent in mid-1877, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses some years earlier, and most historians credit him with its invention. Thomas Alva Edison took the next step in improving the telephone with his invention in 1878 of the carbon grain "transmitter" (microphone) that provided a...
Additional inventions such as the call bell, central telephone exchange, common battery, ring tone, amplification, trunk lines, and wireless phones – at first cordless and then fully mobile– made the telephone the useful and widespread apparatus as it is now.
Bell has been widely recognized as the "inventor" of the telephone outside of Italy, where Meucci was championed as its inventor. In the United States, there are numerous reflections of Bell as a North American icon for inventing the telephone, and the matter was for a long time non-controversial. In June 2002, however, the United States House of Representatives passed a symbolic bill recognizing the contributions of Antonio Meucci "in the invention of the telephone" (not "for the invention of the telephone"), throwing the matter into some controversy. Ten days later the Canadian parliamentcountered with a symbolic motion conferring official recognition for the invention of the telephone to Bell. Champions of Meucci, Manzetti, and Gray have each offered fairly precise tales of a contrivance whereby Bell actively stole the invention of the telephone from their specific inventor. In the 2002 congressional resolution, it was inaccurately noted that Bell worked in a laboratory in which...
In 1906 the citizens of the City of Brantford, Ontario, Canada and its surrounding area formed the Bell Memorial Association to commemorate the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in July 1874 at his parents’ home, Melville House, near Brantford. Walter Allward's design was the unanimous choice from among 10 submitted models, winning the competition. The memorial was originally to be completed by 1912 but Allward did not finish it until five years later. The Governor General of Canada, Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, ceremoniously unveiled the memorial on October 24, 1917. Allward designed the monument to symbolize the telephone's ability to overcome distances. A series of steps lead to the main section where the floating allegorical figure of Inspiration appears over a reclining male figure representing Man, discovering his power to transmit sound through space, and also pointing to three floating figures, the messengers of Knowledge, Joy, and Sorrow posit...Baker, Burton H. (2000), The Gray Matter: The Forgotten Story of the Telephone, St. Joseph, MI, 2000. ISBN 0-615-11329-XBell, Alexander Graham. (1911), Speech by Alexander Graham Bell, November 2, 1911: Historical address delivered by Alexander Graham Bell, November 2, 1911, at the first meeting of the Telephone Pio...Bethune, Brian, (2008) Did Bell Steal the Idea for the Phone? (Book Review), Maclean's Magazine, February 4, 2008;Bourseul, Charles, Transmission électrique de la parole, L'Illustration (Paris), August 26, 1854 (in French)Heroes of the Telegraph by John Munro at Project GutenbergAmerican Treasures of the Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell – Lab notebook I, pages 40–41 (image 22)
- Types of Telephones
- Telephone Number
Alexander Graham Bell was the first person to patent the telephone, in 1876. Early telephones were wired directly to each other and could only talk to the phone that they were connected to. Later, telephone exchanges allowed connecting to other telephones. During the 20th century the machines that made the connections were automated.
There are many different types of telephone. A telephone that can be carried around is called a mobile phone or cell phone. These became popular in the late 1980s. It has become common for people to carry mobile phones and in some places it is unusual to not have one. The majority are smartphones, which can be used as computers. Some mobile phones are able to make telephone calls using communications satellitesinstead of masts on the ground, which means people can make calls from anywhere in the world. In most countries there are public payphones. To use one, people pay with coins, a credit card or a prepaid card. Computers can use a machine called a modem or a Digital subscriber line router to talk to other computers over a telephone line. This allows a computer to connect to other computer networks including the Internet. Most countries have a telephone network. The telephones in one place are connected to a telephone exchange. The exchanges are connected together in a world-wide...
Most telephones have their own number. Today, telephone numbers are about seven to ten digits long. In many countries, part of the telephone number is called the area code. Area codes are used to make sure the numbers are not the same in two different places. Areas have their own area code, and countries have their own country code.
By the end of 2009, there were a total of nearly 6 billion mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers worldwide. This included 1.26 billion fixed-line subscribers and 4.6 billion mobile subscribers.
- Reformation under the name "Les Insus?" (2015-2017)
Téléphone was a French rock band formed in 1976 by Jean-Louis Aubert, Louis Bertignac, Corine Marienneau and Richard Kolinka. Their first, self-titled album was released in 1977; by the end of the decade they were one of the biggest French rock bands around, opening shows for The Rolling Stones in Paris, Quebec, the United States and Japan. The band split in 1986 for personal reasons. They have sold around 10 million albums to date, a record still unbeaten for a French rock band. Among...
The band reunited briefly for a concert at the Point Éphémère on 11 September 2015 under the name "Les Insus?". Les Insus? were composed of Aubert, Bertignac and Kolinka but with the bassist Corine Marienneau replaced on the bass guitar by Aleksander Angelov. Another concert was given in Lille on September 15. Les Insus? also gave a concert in Lyon, at Le Transbordeur, on 6 October 2015. On November 29, 2015, the new group announced a real tour in France for 2016. The tour was scheduled ...
FRENCH CHARTS Anna: 2 Crache ton venin: 2 Au cœur de la nuit: 3 Dure limite: 1 Un autre monde: 2 Album "Un autre monde" won French awards "Victoire de la musique album rock" in 1985.
"Telephone" was written by Lady Gaga, Rodney Jerkins, LaShawn Daniels, Lazonate Franklin and Beyoncé. Musically, the song has been described as dance-pop. Although constructed as a duet, Beyoncé's first appearance is in the middle verse. She sings her lyrics through a brief interlude, and later backs the chorus during the rest of the song.
- Ethical Questions
- External Links
A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation (0G) services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive. The development of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications, and devic...
Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features. The International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions (which includes tablets, etc.). In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony.
Feature phone is a term typically used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones typically provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, and other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone which is only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feat...
Mobile phones communicate with cell towers that are placed to give coverage across a telephone service area, which is divided up into 'cells'. Each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, and will typically be covered by three towers placed at different locations. The cell towers are usually interconnected to each other and the phone network and the internet by wired connections. Due to bandwidth limitations each cell will have a maximum number of cell phones it can handle at once. The cells are therefore sized depending on the expected usage density, and may be much smaller in cities. In that case much lower transmitter powers are used to avoid broadcasting beyond the cell. In order to handle the high traffic, multiple towers can be set up in the same area (using different frequencies). This can be done permanently or temporarily such as at special events like at the Super Bowl, Taste of Chicago, State Fair, NYC New Year's Eve, hurricane hit cities, etc. wh...
The common components found on all mobile phones are: 1. A central processing unit (CPU), the processor of phones. The CPU is a microprocessor fabricated on a metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit(IC) chip. 2. A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions. A modern handset typically uses a lithium-ion battery (LIB), whereas older handsets used nickel–metal hydride(Ni–MH) batteries. 3. An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. These are a keypad for feature phones, and touch screens for most smartphones (typically with capacitive sensing). 4. A display which echoes the user's typing, and displays text messages, contacts, and more. The display is typically either a liquid-crystal display (LCD) or organic light-emitting diode(OLED) display. 5. Speakersfor sound. 6. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards and Removable User Identity Module(R-UIM) cards. 7. A hardware notification LEDon some phones Low-end mobile phones are often referre...
Feature phones have basic software platforms. Smartphones have advanced software platforms. Android OS has been the best-selling OSworldwide on smartphones since 2011.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term "app" is a shortening of the term "software application". Messaging A common data application on mobile phones is Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. The first SMS message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Fi...
The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and Pock...
From 1983 to 1998, Motorola was market leader in mobile phones. Nokia was the market leader in mobile phones from 1998 to 2012. In Q1 2012, Samsung surpassed Nokia, selling 93.5 million units as against Nokia's 82.7 million units. Samsung has retained its top position since then. In 2017, the top five manufacturers worldwide were Samsung (20.9%), Apple (14.0%), Huawei (9.8%), Oppo (5.7%), and Vivo (6.5%).During Q2 2018, Huawei overtook Apple as the world's second-largest phone manufacturer.
By mobile phone operator
The world's largest individual mobile operator by number of subscribers is China Mobile, which has over 902 million mobile phone subscribers as of June 2018[update]. Over 50 mobile operators have over ten million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators had at least one million subscribers by the end of 2009.In 2014, there were more than seven billion mobile phone subscribers worldwide, a number that is expected to keep growing.
Aside from mobile phone companies tracking smartphone users, smartphone users are vulnerable to hackers. The best way to combat hackers is getting a VPN to shield yourself from others looking for your location. The two most common forms of smartphone tracking is the GPS that tracks your exact location and cell towers that break down one's location. Aside from potential hackers, phone companies and app suppliers are notorious for tracking because they sell information to other companies or marketing. At times companies will partner up with law enforcement to help track down or gather evidence against a suspect.
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, such as keeping in touch with family members, for conducting business, and in order to have access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one mobile phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans. For example, a particular plan might provide for cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The mobile phone has been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society. For example: 1. A study by Motorolafound that one in ten mobile phone subscribers have a second phone that is often kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in such activities as extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings. 2. Some organizations assist victims of domestic violence by providing mobile phones for use in emergencies. These are often refurbishe...
Data Sharing and Tracking
As smartphone tracking has a dramatic increase over the last decade, so has public distrust and brings up the conversation of is mass surveillance ethical. Another ethical concern is the Data privacy collection and Data privacy sharing. People's Data are being sold to countless other companies or shared without consent and if someone's personal privacy is compromised then the victim is left to deal with the trouble while other companies are not held accountable. Fortunately, the issue of priv...
Distraction in the Workplace
It is obvious of how involved the use of smartphones is in our everyday lives and how they place a critical role in terms how we operate. Unfortunately, smartphones can be a huge distraction as they as useful, especially in the workplace. From a various number of studies, the data has shown that looking at your phone repeatedly ruins the work mindset before the task is carried out. Typically, it takes the average person nearly half an hour to gain back their concentration after a small distra...
As the evolution of smartphones goes on, kids in today's era have obtained smartphones at a very young age and many kids have experienced some form of cyberbullying on social media. It's debatable that cyberbullying is more harmful to an individual because unlike facing down a bully in school, cyberbullies can attack someone at any given second. Since the beginning of 2021 it has been reported that 60% of teenagers have encountered a cyberbully online and 70% of teenagers have described fello..."How Cell Phones Work" at HowStuffWorksCell Phone, the ring heard around the world—a video documentary by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- Équipement et Installation
- Voir aussi
En France, Charles Bourseul, agent de l'administration des télégraphes, posa le principe du téléphone. Il publia un article dans L'Illustration du 26 août 1854, sous le titre « Transmission électrique de la parole ». Un grand nombre d'inventeurs ayant participé de près ou de loin à l'inventionet l'amélioration du téléphone, sa paternité fut et est encore l'objet de nombreuses controverses. On notera en particulier : 1. Philipp Reis, dans une déclaration à la Société de physique de Francfort-sur-le-Main, prononce le mot « téléphone » le 26 octobre 1861. En 1863, son dispositif expérimental aurait permis de transmettre la voix avec une bonne qualité, quoique d'une faible intensité. 2. L'italo-américain Antonio Meucci aurait fabriqué plusieurs dispositifs téléphoniques entre 1849 et 1870, et déposé un brevet descriptif (patent caveat) le 28 décembre 1870. Il aurait confié ses prototypes à Edward B. Grant, vice-président de l'American District Telegraph Company of New York, qui le...
Le téléphone se compose historiquement de deux blocs : 1. un boîtier contenant les organes de transmission de la parole, très souvent un système de sonnerie pour signaler un appel et un cadran ou un clavier permettant un dialogue avec le central téléphonique. Ce dialogue est effectué en composant le numéro d'un autre abonné. Le commutateur du central y répond en envoyant des tonalités d'acceptation, de refus ou d'acheminement. En France, la tonalité d'acheminement a été supprimée le 18 octobr...
Dans une pièce, les sons se propagent par ondes acoustiques. Pour le téléphone fixe, c'est différent. Les ondes sont recueillies dans un "microphone". À l’intérieur de celui-ci, les vibrations sont transformées en impulsions électriques qui sont transmises par les fils jusqu'au téléphone correspondant. L'appareil cible effectue alors le procédé inverse : les impulsions électriques sont transformées en ondes acoustiques reproduisant la voix de l'interlocuteur. Le message est donc transmis en t...
Un téléphone mobile est un appareil électronique autonome de dimension réduite permettant initialement de transmettre la voix à l'aide d'ondes radio. Avec l'amélioration des réseaux de télécommunications et la miniaturisation des composants électroniques, le téléphone mobile a évolué pour acquérir au début du XXIe siècle des fonctionnalités proches de celles des PDA.
En Unicode, les symboles sont : 1. U+260E ☎ téléphone noir (HTML : ☎) 2. U+260F ☏ téléphone blanc (HTML : ☏) 3. U+2121 ℡ symbole téléphone (HTML : ℡) 4. U+2706 ✆ symbole d'emplacement du téléphone (HTML : ✆)
En référence au bruit qu'il émet lors de la cuisson du lait, l'anti-monte-lait est surnommé en Mosellefrancophone par plaisanterie un « téléphone ».
1. Portail de l’électricité et de l’électronique 2. Portail des télécommunications
The telephone (spelt tellyphone an aw) is a haund-held communication device inventit bi Alexander Graham Bell.. References. This technologie-relatit airticle is a stub.Ye can help Wikipaedia bi expandin it
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