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  1. Tocharian languages - Wikipedia › wiki › Tocharian_languages

    Tocharian B, however, is found throughout the range and in both religious and secular texts. As a result, it has been suggested that Tocharian A was a liturgical language, no longer spoken natively, while Tocharian B was the spoken language of the entire area.

  2. Tocharian languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ... › wiki › Tocharian_languages

    The Tocharian languages were a branch of the Indo-European languages. They are now extinct. They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China). Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD.

  3. Tocharians - Wikipedia › wiki › Tocharians

    The Tocharian languages are known from around 7600 documents dating from about 400 to 1200 AD, found at 30 sites in the northeast Tarim area. The manuscripts are written in two distinct, but closely related, Indo-European languages, conventionally known as Tocharian A and Tocharian B.

  4. Proto-Tocharian language - Wikipedia › wiki › Proto-Tocharian_language
    • Overview
    • Evolution
    • Phonology

    Proto-Tocharian, also spelled Proto-Tokharian, is the reconstructed proto-language of the extinct Tocharian branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Tocharian is the unattested reconstructed ancestor of an Indo-European eponymous extinct branch, known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin and the Lop Desert. The discovery of this language family in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an ea

    Tocharian A deletes all Proto-Tocharian final vowels, as well as all instances of Proto-Tocharian ä in open syllables. When this produces impossible consonant sequences, these are rectified by vocalizing w and y into u and i, if possible; otherwise, an epenthetic ä is ...

    The following are the main changes between PIE and Proto-Tocharian: 1. Centum change: PIE "palatals" merge with PIE "plain velars". 2. Loss of PIE d in a number of words when not followed by a PIE front vocalic. 3. Loss of contrastive voicing and aspiration, resulting in the merg

    The outcomes of the PIE dentals in Tocharian, and in particular PIE *d, are complex and difficult to explain. Palatalization sometimes produces c, sometimes ts, sometimes ś, and in some words when a front vocalic does not follow, PIE *d is lost entirely, e.g. e.g. Toch AB ...

    Phonetically, Proto-Tocharian is "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that it merges the palatovelar consonants of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. Centum languages are mostly found in western and southern Europe. In that sense, Proto-Tocharian seems to have been an isolate in the "satem" phonetic regions of Indo-European-speaking populations. The discovery of Tocharian languages contributed to doubts that Proto-Indo-Europea

  5. Talk:Tocharian languages - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Tocharian_languages

    Tocharian languages is part of WikiProject Central Asia, a project to improve all Central Asia-related articles.This includes but is not limited to Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Tibet, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang and Central Asian portions of Iran, Pakistan and Russia, region-specific topics, and anything else related to Central Asia.

  6. Thracian language - Wikipedia › wiki › Thracian_language

    The Thracian language (/ ˈ θ r eɪ ʃ ən /) is an extinct and poorly attested language, spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians.The linguistic affinities of the Thracian language are poorly understood, but it is generally agreed that it was an Indo-European language with satem features.

  7. Tocharians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › new_content › 89702f228e8dce3c55944

    The Tocharians were the Tocharian -speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity.

  8. Tocharian languages | Britannica › topic › Tocharian-languages

    Tocharian languages, Tocharian also spelled Tokharian, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad.

  9. Anatolian languages - Wikipedia › wiki › Anatolian_languages

    This suggests the Anatolian gender system is the original for IE, while the feminine-masculine-neuter classification of Tocharian + Core IE languages may have arisen following a sex-based split within the class of topical nouns to provide more precise reference tracking for male and female humans.

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