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  1. Umar II - Wikipedia › wiki › Umar_II

    Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, commonly known as Umar II, was the eighth Umayyad caliph. He made various significant contributions and reforms to the society, and he has been described as "the most pious and devout" of the Umayyad rulers and was often called the first Mujaddid and sixth righteous caliph of Islam. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a matrilineal great-grandson of the second caliph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Surro

    • Caliphate

      According to the traditional Muslim sources, when Sulayman...

    • Death and legacy

      His reforms in favor of the people greatly angered the...

    • Yazid II

      Umar II had likely withdrawn most of the Syrians from Wasit,...

  2. Al-Ashraf Umar II - Wikipedia › wiki › Al-Ashraf_Umar_II

    Umar Ibn Yusuf was born in 1242 in Yemen and he died in 1296. He is known for writing the first description of the use of a magnetic compass for determining the qibla. Also, his works on astronomy contain important information on earlier sources.

    • 22 November 1296, Yemen
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    Where did Umar II Live at the time of his birth?

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    Why was Umar considered to be a true Muslim?

  4. Umar Shaikh Mirza II - Wikipedia › wiki › Umar_Shaikh_Mirza_II

    Umar Shaikh Mirza II (1456–1494 C.E.) was the ruler of the Fergana Valley. He was the fourth son of Abu Sa'id Mirza, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and eastern Iran.

  5. Talk:Umar II - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Umar_II
    • Untitled
    • Treatment of Jews and Christians
    • Name
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    • 6th Rashidun

    uring the reign of Caliph Umar II there was a massive land and sea assault by the Caliphate upon the Byzantine Capitol city of Constantinople, led by his brother Maslama. Almost the entire force of men and ships was lost, which totalled somewhere to almost 200,000 men and 2,000 ships. I'm going to put in a link to the Second Arab siege of Constantinoplein this article because if it had succeeded, then the Byzantine Empire probably would have crumbled and the Islamic Caliphate would have expanded into the Balkans and Europe 800 years earlier than it did. --bbcrackmonkey I've removed this from Rashidun, please add it where apprpriate here.Bless sins01:01, 12 March 2007 (UTC) Umar bin Abdul Aziz (Umar ІІ), who was one of the Ummayyad caliphs, is sometimes regarded as one of the Rashidun. This is mostly due to his sheer strict-but-just conduct and peace during his reign that resemebled his grandfather, the second caliph. Muslim tradition recounts many anecdotes of him passed through gen...

    To my knowledge, this Caliph forced Jews to wear discriminatory signs in public. His treatments of Christians was similar - one of the reasons for the many conversions which he address in the taxes. Why does it not appear in the article? -- Zz (talk) 13:22, 24 September 2012 (UTC) 1. Do you have any reliable, scholarly sources that back those claims? Most sources describe the caliph as particularly tolerant. Also, this article isn't exactly high-quality, needs a lot of improvement. --Al Ameer son (talk) 19:15, 24 September 2012 (UTC) 1.1. No, I do not have them. I bet I could find them, but what I actually wanted to do is stir up a discussion for a general improvement of the article. If you have a bite, I will be glad. -- Zz (talk) 19:31, 30 September 2012 (UTC) 1.1.1. Zickzack is right and the entry is deficient in this point. If Umar II has a reputation among Muslims for tolerance that has to do with his irenic approach to Shia and stopping the cursing of Ali in the prayer. Agains...

    His name was Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz not Umar II...he was a grandson of Umar ibn al-Khattab but he was an Umayyad and should be considered as an fact he was the first ruler among the Umayyad's with the name Umar therefore he should be just known by his name182.182.55.56 (talk) 14:25, 11 November 2013 (UTC)

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just modified one external link on Umar II. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQfor additional information. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive to When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. As of February 2018, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, b...

    Most of the scholar class Umar ibn Abdul Aziz as 5th Rashidun caliph. Infact he was the 6th Rashidun caliph not the 5th. The 5th Rashidun was a Hasan ibn Ali. He was chosen as caliph by people after the murder of his father. Prophet Muhammad had said that "caliphate in my ummah will remain only 30 years. After those 30 years, it will be a kingship." 30 years of caliphate isn't completed without counting 6 months of Hasan's caliphate as Muhammad predicted.— Hammad (Talk!)02:22, 11 April 2020 (UTC)

  6. Umar II - Wikipedia › wiki › Umar_II

    Umar II Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26t Safar, 63 AH) – 31 Januar 720 (16t Rajab, 101 AH)) (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز ‎) wis an Umayyad caliph who ruled frae 717 tae 720.

  7. Pact of Umar - Wikipedia › wiki › Pact_of_Umar_II
    • Origin and Authenticity
    • Content
    • See Also
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    The origins of the Pact of 'Umar are difficult, if not entirely impossible, to identify. Western scholars' opinions varied about the Pact's authenticity. According to Anver M. Emon, "There is intense discussion in the secondary literature" about the Pact's authenticity, with scholars in disagreement over whether it might have originated during the reign of Umar b. al-Khattab ['Umar I] or was "a later invention retroactively associated with Umar -- the caliph who famously led the initial imperial expansion -- to endow the contract of dhimma with greater normative weight" Several historians suggest that the Pact was written over the course of several centuries, not all at one time. Bernard Lewis, widely regarded as one of the leading scholars in Jewish history, described the "official" origin of the Pact of 'Umar: "The Muslim historiographic tradition ascribes these regulations to the caliph 'Umar I (634-644)." He goes on to doubt the validity of this attribution, writing that the doc...

    There are several different versions of the pact that differ both in their language and stipulations. The points:[page needed] 1. Prohibition against building new churches, places of worship, monasteries, monks or a new cell. (Hence it was also forbidden to build new synagogues. It is known that new synagogues were only built after the occupation of Islam, for example in Jerusalem and Ramle. A similar law, prohibiting the build of new synagogues, existed in the Byzantines, and was therefore not new for all Jews. It was new for the Christians.) 2. Prohibition against rebuilding destroyed churches, by day or night, in their own neighbourhoods or those situated in the quarters of the Muslims. 3. The worship places of non-Muslims must be lower in elevation than the lowest mosquein town. 4. The houses of non-Muslims must not be taller in elevation than the houses of Muslims. 5. Prohibition against hanging a cross on the Churches. 6. Muslims should be allowed to enter Churches(for shelter...

    Text of one version of the Pact, in arabic and translated into French, commentary and translation by Ahmed Oulddali (2012).

  8. Category:Umar II - Wikimedia Commons › wiki › Category:Umar_II

    This page was last edited on 27 January 2021, at 11:52. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.

  9. Omar - Wikipedia › wiki › Umar
    • Early Life
    • During Muhammad's Era
    • Foundation of The Caliphate
    • Abu Bakr's Era
    • Reign as Caliph
    • Assassination
    • Physical Appearance
    • Assessments
    • Family
    • See Also

    Omar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitration among the tribes. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. In his youth he used to tend to his father's camels in the plains near Mecca. His merchant father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe.Omar himself said: "My father, Al-Khattab was a ruthless man. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion." Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Omar learned to read and write in his youth. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Omar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. He was tall, physically powerful and a renowned wrestler.He was also a gifted orator who succeeded his father as an arbitrator among the tribes. Omar became a merchant and made...

    Initial hostility to Islam

    In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. However, like many others in Mecca, Omar opposed Islam and even threatened to kill Muhammad. He resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad, and very prominent in persecuting Muslims. He recommended Muhammad's death. He firmly believed in the unity of the Quraishand saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord. Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some...

    Conversion to Islam

    Omar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia.The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah. On his way to murder Muhammad, Omar met his best friend Nua'im bin Abdullah who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Omar. When Omar informed him that he had set out to kill Muhammad, Nua'im said, “By God, you have deceived yourself, O Omar! Do you think that Banu Abd Manaf would let you run around alive once you had killed their son Muhammad? Why don't you retur...

    Migration to Medina

    In 622 CE, due to the safety offered by Yathrib (later renamed Medīnat an-Nabī, or simply Medina), Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina. Most Muslims migrated at night fearing Quraish resistance, but Omar is reported to have left openly during the day saying: "Any one who wants to make his wife a widow and his children orphans should come and meet me there behind that cliff." Omar migrated to Medina accompanied by his cousin and brother-in-law Saeed ibn Zaid.

    Omar's political capacity first manifested as the architect of the caliphate after Muhammad died on 8 June 632. While the funeral of Muhammad was being arranged a group of Muhammad's followers who were natives of Medina, the Ansar (helpers), organised a meeting on the outskirts of the city, effectively locking out those companions known as Muhajirs (The Emigrants) including Omar. Omar found out about this meeting at Saqifah Bani Saadah, and, taking with him two other Muhajirs, Abu Bakr and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, proceeded to the meeting, presumably to head off the Ansars' plans for political separation. Arriving at the meeting, Omar was faced with a unified community of tribes from the Ansar who refused to accept the leadership of the Muhajirs. However, Omar was undeterred in his belief the caliphate should be under the control of the Muhajirs. Though the Khazraj were in disagreement, Omar, after strained negotiations lasting one or two days, brilliantly divided the Ansar into t...

    Due to the delicate political situation in Arabia[vague], Omar initially opposed military operations against the rebel tribes there,[citation needed]hoping to gain their support in the event of an invasion by the Romans or the Persians. Later, however, he came to agree with Abu Bakr's strategy to crush the rebellion by force. By late 632 CE, Khalid ibn Walid had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against the rebels. During his own reign later, Omar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the incorporated lands rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. Omar advised Abu Bakr to compile the Quran in the form of a book after 300 huffāẓ (memorizers) of the Quran died in the Battle of Yamamah.

    Initial challenges

    Even though almost all of the Muslims had given their pledge of loyalty to Omar, he was feared more than loved. According to Muhammad Husayn Haykal, the first challenge for Omar was to win over his subjects and the members of Majlis al Shura. Omar was a gifted orator, and he used his ability to improve his reputation among the people. Muhammad Husayn Haykal wrote that Omar's stress was on the well-being of the poor and underprivileged.In addition to this, Omar, in order to improve his reputat...

    Political and civil administration

    The government of Omar was a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the caliph.[citation needed] The empire of Omar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories, e.g., Azerbaijan and Armenia, that had accepted the suzerainty of the caliphate.[citation needed] The provinces were administered by the provincial governors or Wali, personally and fastidiously selected by Omar. Provinces were further divided into about 100 districts. Each district or main city...


    Since Medina, with a rapidly growing population, was at risk of recurring famines when crops were lacking, Omar sought to facilitate the import of grain. He ordered the building of a canal connecting the Nile to the Red Sea and an improvement of port infrastructure on the Arabian coast. When Basra was established during Omar's rule, he started building a nine-mile canal from the Tigris to the new city for irrigation and drinking water. Al-Tabari reports that 'Utba ibn Ghazwan built the first...

    In 644, Omar was assassinated by a Persian slave named Abu Lulu by later accounts. His motivation for the assassination is not clear. One possible explanation was that it was done in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia. The assassination was planned several months earlier. In October 644, Omar undertook a Hajj to Mecca, during which the assassins pronounced Omar's imminent death that year, and the massive crowd of the congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves.[citation needed] During one of rituals of Hajj, the Ramy al-Jamarat (stoning of the Devil), someone threw a stone at Omar that wounded his head; a voice was heard that Omar will not attend the Hajj ever again.[citation needed] The Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi(also known as Abu Lulu) brought a complaint to Omar about the high tax charged by his master Mughirah. Omar wrote to Mughirah and inquired about the tax; Mughirah's reply was satisfactory, but Omar held that the tax charged to Abu Lulu...

    Omar was strong, fit, athletic and good at wrestling. He is said to have participated in the wrestling matches on the occasion of the annual fair of Ukaz. From first hand accounts of his physical appearance Omar is said to be vigorous, robust and a very tall man; in markets he would tower above the people. The front part of his head was bald, always A'sara Yusran (working with two hands), both his eyes were black, with yellow skin; however, ibn Sa'ad in his book stated that he never knew that 'Omar had yellow skin, except for a certain part of Omar's life where his color changed due to his frequent consumption of oil. Others[who?] say he had reddish-white skin.[citation needed] His teeth were ashnabul asnan(very white shining). He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant. Early Muslim historians Ibn Saad and Al-Hakim mention that Abu Miriam Zir, a native of Kufa, described Omar as being "advanced in years, bald, of a tawny colour – a left handed m...

    Political legacy

    One writer states that Omar was a political genius and, as an architect of the Islamic Empire, rates him as the 52nd most influential figure in history. Omar was one of Muhammad's chief advisers. After Muhammad's passing, it was Omar who reconciled the Medinan Muslims to accept Abu Bakr, a Meccan, as the caliph. During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretary and main adviser.After succeeding Abu Bakr as caliph, Omar won over the hearts of Bedouin tribes by emancipating all t...

    Military legacy

    Along with Khalid ibn Walid, Omar was influential in the Ridda wars. One strategic success was his sundering of the Byzantine-Sassanid alliance in 636, when Emperor Heraclius and Emperor Yazdegerd III allied against their common enemy.[citation needed] He was lucky in that the Persian Emperor Yazdegerd III couldn't synchronize with Heraclius as planned. Omar fully availed himself of the opportunity by inducing the Byzantines to act prematurely.[citation needed] This was contrary to the orders...

    Omar married nine women in his lifetime and had fourteen children: ten sons and four daughters.[citation needed]

  10. Umar II - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader › en › Umar_II

    Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز‎, romanized: ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ; 2 November 682 – c. 5 February 720), commonly known as Umar II (عمر الثاني), was the eighth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 22 September 717 until his death in 720. Umar made various significant contributions and refo

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