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  1. History of Northern Ireland - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Northern_Ireland

    Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom, (although it is also described by official sources as a province or a region), situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland. It was created as a separate legal entity on 3 May 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.

  2. History of Northern Ireland | Britannica

    www.britannica.com › topic › history-of-Northern-Ireland

    Other articles where History of Northern Ireland is discussed: Northern Ireland: History: Out of the 19th- and early 20th-century ferment that produced a sovereign state of Ireland to its south, Northern Ireland emerged in 1920–22 as a constituent part of the United Kingdom with its own devolved parliament.

  3. Northern Ireland Timeline - History

    www.historyonthenet.com › northern-ireland-timelin

    The Northern Ireland Government was dominated by the Unionist party and as a part of the United Kingdom anti-Catholic laws that had been passed in the nineteenth century were still in force. The NICRA was largely based on the US Civil Rights Movement that fought for equality for black Americans and wanted to see the anti-Catholic measures abolished and equality for Catholics in Northern Ireland.

  4. Northern Ireland - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Northern_Ireland

    Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, creating a devolved government for the six northeastern counties. The majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.

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  5. Northern Ireland | History, Population, Flag, Map, Capital ...

    www.britannica.com › place › Northern-Ireland

    Northern Ireland Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Since the 1920s, when Northern Ireland was officially separated from Ireland, it has been tormented by sectarian violence. Notwithstanding the peacemaking efforts that began in earnest in the mid-1990s, Northern Ireland is still best navigated by those who are skilled in the shibboleths and cultural codes that demarcate its peoples, governing which football (soccer) team to cheer for, which whiskey to drink, and which song to sing.

  6. History of The Northern Ireland Conflict | Sky HISTORY TV Channel

    www.history.co.uk › history-of-the-northern
    • Origins
    • Aftermath
    • Population
    • Causes
    • Background
    • Issues
    • Prelude
    • Reactions

    The origins of problems in the region stretch centuries back to the Anglo-Norman intervention of Ireland in 1167, when England first laid roots in the area. Despite some intermingling of the English and Irish population, the two were never completely united. As a result, two disparate populations, with differing interests, found themselves living in a small island side by side. This descent into violence precipitated the need for armed forces on both sides. By 1969, the Provisional IRA (PIRA) was formed, a breakaway from the main part of the IRA. Like the IRA itself, the PIRA demanded the unification of Ireland, advocated civil rights and represented Catholic interests. Unlike the IRA, it was prepared to use violent means to achieve its ends.

    These differences became more marked during the reign of Henry VIII. His break from Rome placed him at loggerheads with Catholic Europe and introduced religion into Irish politics for the first time. Resistance to the British Crown came in 1534 when the Kildare heir, Lord Offaly, led a Catholic revolt against the Protestant English King in Ireland. It was swiftly put down and those involved were executed. Elizabeth I continued her fathers legacy in Ireland. A bid for independence by Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone, was ultimately defeated by the Queens army, with a harsh post-war settlement impeding future uprisings from the Catholic majority. England could not afford to ignore Irelands calls for independence. After all, the mood was ripe for unrest, with both America and France already experiencing revolution in the latter half of the eighteenth century. As a concession, the penal laws were relaxed. But this did not extinguish opposition; in 1798 a rebellion broke out in Ireland, organised by the United Irishmen, a revolutionary republican group, who had been inspired by the revolutions of France and America. The rebellion lasted for several months. Despite successes in the south-east county of Wexford and the assistance of the French, it ultimately failed. In January 1801 the Act of Union was passed, which made Ireland and England one state, as a result of the rebellion convincing William Pitt that this was necessary for national security. Out of this act the United Kingdom was created, the Irish parliament was abolished and the Church of Ireland and England were united. 100 Irish MPs entered the House of Commons and 32 Irish peers entered the House of Lords. In response to the Union, the Catholic Association was formed by Daniel OConnell, who turned it into a national movement campaigning for Catholic emancipation. In his debate, Ulster (Northern Ireland) was singled out as a special case for the first time. The end of World War I did not bring an end to problems for Britain, with issues remaining tense across the shore. During the first election since the wars close, 73 Sinn Fein candidates were elected. All of them refused to attend Westminster, forming their own Irish Assembly, the Dail Eirann. Violent confrontations quickly broke out, with atrocities committed on both sides. The escalation of violence made an Irish solution urgent. There was no longer time to deal with the Ulster Question. In May 1921 the Government of Ireland Act was passed, splitting Ireland into two. Six predominantly Protestant counties in Ulster become known as the North and the remaining 26 counties formed part of the South. The South was established as the Irish Free Zone, which had dominion status within the British Commonwealth, although not full independence - that was granted in 1937, when a new constitution abolished the Irish Free State and proclaimed EIRE (Gaelic for Ireland) as an independent, sovereign state. Ten hunger strikers died in prison, including Sands who died on 5 May 1981. Despite his death, his election victory encouraged Sinn Fein, the IRAs political wing, to fight in further elections. And in June 1983, Gerry Adams, the leader of Sinn Fein, went on to win the Westminster seat for West Belfast. Even though Margaret Thatcher was not in a conciliatory mood after narrowly escaping an IRA bomb at a Conservative Party conference in Brighton in October 1984, she could not dismiss the rising popularity of Sinn Fein or overlook the continued violence in the region. Thus in November 1985 Thatcher and Garret Fitzgerald signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement, which outlined that Northern Ireland would remain independent of the Republic as long as that represented the will of the majority in the North. At the same time, it set up the Intergovernmental Conference, which gave the Republic a voice on security and political issues. The light had not been turned out on tensions in the region, which resonate to this day. But as a result of several initiatives, most specifically the 1994 paramilitary ceasefires in Northern Ireland and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, which saw direct rule of Northern Ireland being placed in the hands of locally elected government, a much more peaceful era had emerged.

    The plantations altered the demography of Ireland. Large Protestant English communities were created, whose identity was at odds with the Roman Catholic Irish inhabitants.

    The British governments laissez faire approach to the 1840s potato famine exacerbated the situation. By 1851, the Irish population had dropped by two million as a result of death, disease and emigration. The desire for an autonomous Ireland took on even more intensity and violence. Within this context, British politicians recognized that a resolution to problems in Ireland was paramount. The formation of the Home Rule League in 1870 acted as a further catalyst for Prime Minister William Gladstone to put forward bills for Irish self-government. Gladstone never got to see his wish for Home Rule come to light both his 1886 and 1893 bills were never passed. But the turn of the century ushered in an age in which Ireland was firmly on the British political agenda.

    Calm prevailed for several decades in Northern Ireland, owed in large part to the rule of Prime Minister Viscount Brookeborough, who was in office for 20 years. His political allegiance with the Ulster Unionists marginalised the Catholic minority both socially and politically. This situation was exacerbated in the 1960s: Northern Ireland, which had been relatively prosperous in the immediate years after the war, now suffered the same economic fate as the mainland, which was in economic decline. Brookeborough fell from power; his inability to deal with the situation causing the members of his own party to turn against him. Former army officer Terence ONeill was appointed in his place. ONeill introduced a series of measures to address Northern Irelands social, economic and political malaise. Amongst his many radical moves, he met with the Republic of Irelands Prime Minister Sean Lamass, which was the first meeting between the two factions in forty years. By 1973, with violence escalating further, plans were afoot for a new Northern Ireland assembly, elected by proportional representation, in which Protestants and Catholics would share power. Known as the Sunningdale Agreement, a reference to the town in Berkshire where the negotiations took place, unionists were split by the agreement since it raised the possibility that the Republic could have a voice in Northern Ireland. Despite staunch opposition to Sunningdale in the form of a referendum in which anti-agreement Unionists won 11 of Northern Irelands 12 parliamentary seats, the agreement was signed at the end of 1973. Coming to fruition in January 1974, the new government was wrought with weakness, mired by its exclusion of anti-power sharing representatives from the executive. By May of the same year, turmoil had reached a head: The Ulster Workers Council, a coalition of Protestant trade unionists, called for a general strike in the province and loyalist bombs exploded throughout Dublin and Monaghan, killing 32 people in the worst day of the Troubles. By the end of May, those who had been in favour of Sunningdale resigned. Direct rule was immediately reinstated and would remain so for the next 25 years. Over the next decade, various different peace initiatives were both suggested and tested, but none led to peace in the region. Relations between the Republic of Ireland and Britain became more strained upon the declassification of paramilitary prisoners from a special category that gave them similar rights as prisoners of war, to simply ordinary criminals. Seen as an affront to their vision that they were fighting a war, something the British government would not concede, PIRA prisoners embarked on a series of protests, most significantly hunger strikes. The strikes were popular, as demonstrated by leading hunger striker Bobby Sands, who won the vacant Westminster seat of Fermanagh in South Tyrone in a by-election. Nevertheless, Margaret Thatcher refused to make any concessions.

    With the advent of better education as a result of the introduction of the Welfare State and the equal opportunities it entailed, the disparities within the Northern Ireland community were highlighted.

    This was evident on 30 January 1972, when the army controversially suppressed rioting at a civil rights march in Derry in a day that became known as Bloody Sunday. The resulting death toll of 14 civil rights protestors fed into the hands of the IRA; more recruits flooded into their ranks. In turn, more British troops were deployed to the area.

    Reaction to this agreement was diverse; it was greeted by huge demonstrations and the likes that aimed to derail the agreement. Nevertheless, it prevailed.

  7. Northern Ireland at 100: a timeline of its founding ...

    www.theguardian.com › uk-news › 2021

    Apr 30, 2021 · As Northern Ireland marks the centenary of its foundation in May 1921 after the partition of Ireland, here is a timeline of how that came to happen. Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. the Troubles | Summary, Causes, & Facts | Britannica

    www.britannica.com › event › The-Troubles-Northern

    The divide between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland had little to do with theological differences but instead was grounded in culture and politics. Neither Irish history nor the Irish language was taught in schools in Northern Ireland, it was illegal to fly the flag of the Irish republic, and from 1956 to 1974 Sinn Féin, the party of Irish republicanism, also was banned in ...

  9. Northern Ireland vs Ireland: The Biggest Differences in 2020

    www.theirishroadtrip.com › northern-ireland-vs-ireland

    The division of the island of Ireland into two separate regions – Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland – took place on the 3rd of May, 1921. The UK originally intended that all of Ireland would remain part of the United Kingdom, but the Irish War of Independence (a guerrilla war that was fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army and British forces) saw that this didn’t happen.

    • Keith O'hara
  10. Ireland - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ireland

    Geopolitically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain.

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