Allied-occupied Germany (German: Deutschland in der Besatzungszeit, literally: "Germany in the occupation period") was the administration of Germany (German: Deutsches Reich) upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, when the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over Germany as a whole, defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder–Neisse ...
The history of Berlin starts with its foundation in the 13th...
- Territories annexed by Germany between 1938 and 1945
All territories annexed by Germany before the war from...
- Occupation zones
The American zone in Southern Germany consisted of Bavaria...
Allied occupation zones in Germany, 1945–1949. The territories east of the Oder–Neisse line (under Polish and Soviet administration/annexation), as well as the detached Saar Protectorate (under French protection), are shown in cream. Bremen was an American enclave within the British zone. Berlin was a four-power area within the Soviet zone.
The main article for this category is Allied occupation of Germany. In the aftermath of World War II, the Allied Powers occupied Germany and set up an extensive administrative structure.
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Allied-occupied Germany From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the occupation of Western Germany after World War I, see Occupation of the Rhineland and Occupation of the Ruhr.
The Rheinwiesenlager camps Following is the list of 19 prisoner-of-war camps set up in Allied-occupied Germany at the end of World War II to hold the Nazi German prisoners of war captured across Northwestern Europe by the Allies of World War II.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority (German: Alliierter Kontrollrat) and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Allied-occupied Austria after the end of World War II. Members were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and France.
- Territories Annexed by Germany 1938-1945
- The Zones of Occupation
- Other German Territory
- Governance and The Emergence of Two German States
- Occupation Policy
- Expulsion Policy
- Military Governors and Commissioners
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All territory annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia was returned to these countries. The Memellandannexed by Germany from Lithuania before the war was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and given to the Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the war from Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Poland and Yugoslavia was returned to those countries.
American Zone of Occupation
The American zone consisted of Bavaria and Hesse in Southern Germany, and the northern portions of the present-day German state of Baden-Württemberg. The ports of Bremen (on the lower Weser River) and Bremerhaven (at the Weser estuary of the North Sea) were also placed under American control because of the American request to have certain toeholds in Northern Germany. The headquarters of the American military government was the former IG Farben Buildingin Frankfurt am Main. Beginning in May 1...
British Zone of Occupation
The Canadian Army was tied down in surrounding the Netherlands until the Germans there surrendered on May 5, 1945 – just two days before the final surrender of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe to General Eisenhower. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the conquest of northern Germany by the British Army, the bulk of the Canadian Army returned home, leaving northern Germany to be occupied by the British Army and (around Bremen and Bremerhaven) by the U.S. Army. Then in July 1945, the Br...
French Zone of Occupation
Despite its being one of the Allied Powers, the French Republic was not granted an occupation zone in Germany at first because of concerns over the great historical animosity between France and Germany. Also the French Army had carried out a minor role within the alliance, as compared with the armies, navies, and air forces of the United Kingdom, the only one fighting throughout all the war, the United States (since 1941), and the U.S.S.R.(the Soviet Union, also since 1941, before 1941 being...
While located wholly within the Soviet zone, because of its symbolic importance as the nation's capital and seat of the former Nazi government, the city of Berlin was jointly occupied by the Allied powersand subdivided into four sectors. Berlin was not considered to be part of the Soviet zone.
In 1945 Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line (Farther Pomerania, the New March, Silesia and southerly East Prussia) was attached to Poland and the northern portion of East Prussia became the newly formed Kaliningrad Oblast within the Soviet Union. Most German citizens residing in these areas were subsequently expropriated and expelled. Returning refugees, who had fled from war hostilities were denied return. The Saargebiet, an important area of Germany because of its large deposits of coal, was turned into the Saar protectorate. The Saar was disentangled from the French zone on 16 February 1946. In the speech Restatement of Policy on Germanyon 6 September 1946 the U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S.' motive in detaching the Saar from Germany as "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to the Saar territory". By 18 December 1946 customs controls were established between the Sa...
The original Allied plan to govern Germany as a single unit through the Allied Control Council broke down in 1946–1947 due to growing tensions between the Allies, with Britain and the US wishing cooperation, France obstructing any collaboration in order to unwind Germany into many independent states, and the Soviet Union, unilaterally implementing from early on elements of its political-economic (mass expropriations of land, nationalisation of businesses). Another dispute was the absorption of post-war expelles. While the UK, the US and the USSR had agreed to accept, house and feed maybe six million expelled German citizens from former eastern Germany, and 4 million expelled and denaturalised Czechoslovaks, Poles, Hungarians and Yugoslavs of German ethnicity in their zones, France generally had not agreed to the expulsions approved by the Potsdam agreement (a decision made without input from France). Therefore France strictly refused to absorb war refugees who were denied return to...
General Eisenhower ensured a strict non-fraternizationpolicy was enforced throughout all commands of allied occupation troops in Germany. However, this policy was relaxed in stages. By June 1945 the prohibition on speaking with German children was made less strict. In July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain circumstances. In September the whole policy was completely dropped in Austria and Germany. Nevertheless due to the large numbers of Disarmed Enemy Forces being held in Rheinwiesenlagers throughout western Germany, the Americans and the British – not the Soviets – used armed units of Feldgendarmerie to maintain control and discipline in the camps. In June 1946, these German military police units became the last Wehrmachttroops to surrender their arms to the western powers. By December 1945 over 100,000 German civilians were internedas security threats and for possible trial and sentencing as members of criminal organizations. The food situation in occupied Ge...
Rumors of Nazi plans for insurgency, related to the Nazi Werwolf plan, and successful Nazi deception about plans to withdraw forces to what turned out to be its fictional Alpenfestung redoubtand to use the redoubt as a base from which to conduct guerrilla warfare, affected the last Allied war advances into Germany and influenced Allied occupation plans. It has been estimated that no Allied deaths can be reliably attributed to any Nazi insurgency.
The Potsdam conference, where the victorious Allies drew up plans for the future of Germany, noted in article XIII of the Potsdam Agreementon August 1, 1945 that "the transfer to Germany of German populations (...) in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary will have to be undertaken"; "wild expulsion" was already going on. Hungary, which had been allied with Germany and where no expulsions had as yet taken place and in addition population was opposed to an expulsion of the German minority, tried to resist this, but in the end had to yield to the pressure exerted mainly by the Soviet Union but also by the Allied Control Council. Of the millions expelled from former eastern territories of Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and elsewhere, when they were not used for forced labor, over a period of years they were sent to the occupation zones of UK, USA, and USSR, who agreed in the Potsdam Agreement to absorb the post-war expellees into their zones, where many remained in refugee camps...
Military governors 1. May 8, 1945 – November 10, 1945 Dwight D. Eisenhower 2. November 11, 1945 – November 25, 1945 George S. Patton(acting) 3. November 26, 1945 – January 5, 1947 Joseph T. McNarney 4. January 6, 1947 – May 14, 1949 Lucius D. Clay 5. May 15, 1949 – September 1, 1949 Clarence R. Huebner(acting) High commissioners 1. September 2, 1949 – August 1, 1952 John J. McCloy 2. August 1, 1952 – December 11, 1952 Walter J. Donnelly 3. December 11, 1952 – February 10, 1953 Samuel Reber(ac...
Military governors 1. May 22, 1945 – April 30, 1946 Field Marshal the Viscount Montgomery 2. May 1, 1946 – October 31, 1947 Air Chief Marshal Sir William Sholto Douglas(later Lord Douglas) 3. November 1, 1947 – September 21, 1949 General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson(later Lord Robertson) High commissioners 1. September 21, 1949 – June 24, 1950 General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson 2. June 24, 1950 – September 29, 1953 Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick 3. September 29, 1953 – May 5, 1955 Sir Frederick Hoyer Mi...
Military commander 1. May 1945 – July 1945 Army General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Military governor 1. July 1945 – September 21, 1949 Army General Marie Pierre Kœnig High commissioner 1. September 21, 1949 – May 5, 1955 André François-Poncet
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʁaːtɪʃə ʁepuˈbliːk] (), DDR, pronounced [ˌdeːdeːˈʔɛʁ] ()), was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.
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