Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include some or all of analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness.
- General Anaesthesia
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling...
- General Anaesthesia
Terminology. International standards for the safe practice of anesthesia, jointly endorsed by the World Health Organization and the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists, define "anesthesiologist" as a graduate of a medical school who has completed a nationally recognized specialist anesthesia training program.
- Local anesthetics
- General anesthetics
- Intravenous opioid analgesic agents
- Muscle relaxants
An anesthetic or anaesthetic is a drug used to induce anesthesia — in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness. They may be divided into two broad classes: general anesthetics, which result in a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body without necessarily affecting consciousness. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used...
Local anesthetic agents prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness. They act by reversibly binding to fast sodium channels from within nerve fibers, thereby preventing sodium from entering the fibres, stabilising the cell membrane and preventing action potential propagation. Each of the local anesthetics have the suffix "–caine" in their names. Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics are generally unstable in solution and ...
Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate readily into vapors, and are given by inhalation for induction or maintenance of general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide and xenon are gases at room temperature rather than liquids, so they are not considered volat
While there are many drugs that can be used intravenously to produce anesthesia or sedation, the most common are: 1. Barbiturates Amobarbital Methohexital Thiamylal Thiopental 2. Benzodiazepines Diazepam Lorazepam Midazolam 3. Etomidate 4. Ketamine 5. Propofol The two barbiturate
While opioids can produce unconsciousness, they do so unreliably and with significant side effects. So, while they are rarely used to induce anesthesia, they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics. Furthermore, they are used to relieve pain of patients before, during, or after surgery. The following opioids have short onset and duration of action and are frequently used during general anesthesia
Muscle relaxants do not render patients unconscious or relieve pain. Instead, they are sometimes used after a patient is rendered unconscious to facilitate intubation or surgery by paralyzing skeletal muscle. 1. Depolarizing muscle relaxants Succinylcholine Decamethonium 2. Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants Short acting Mivacurium Rapacuronium Intermediate acting Atracurium Cisatracurium Rocuronium Vecuronium Long acting Alcuronium Doxacurium Gallamine Metocurine Pancuronium Pipecuronium Tubocur
An anesthetic or anaesthetic is a substance that stops pain.It makes people either stop hurting, or go completely to sleep during surgery.Anesthetic can be rubbed onto the skin, given by injection ("shot"), or given as a gas to breathe.
Anesthesia is a 2015 independent drama film written, produced and directed by Tim Blake Nelson. Nelson stars in the film with Sam Waterston, Kristen Stewart, Glenn Close, Gretchen Mol, and Corey Stoll. The film premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival on April 22, 2015. The film was released in a limited release and through video on demand by IFC Films on January 8, 2016.
Philosophy professor Walter Zarrow is wounded during a mugging. In an effort to escape he rings buzzers indiscriminately, waking Sam, a middle-aged father of two having an affair in the city. Sam reluctantly answers Zarrow's pleas, and Zarrow loses consciousness in his arms. Through an exploration of why these men, along with the mugger, and an addict named Joe, come together, we explore New York City. The experience of Zarrow, Sam, Joe and Zarrow's assailant ripple quickly out to include the co
The film had its world premiere at 2015 Tribeca Film Festival on April 22, 2015. Shortly after, IFC Films acquired U.S distribution rights. The film was released in a limited release and through video on demand on January 8, 2016.
On Rotten Tomatoes, Anesthesia has a score of 25%, an average rating of 4.76/10, based on 44 reviews. The website's critics consensus reads: "Anesthesia's incredible cast is wasted on a sloppily-assembled drama whose grand ambitions are undermined by a flawed screenplay." Metacritic gives the film a score of 55 out of 100, sampled from 19 reviews, signifying "mixed or average reviews". Anesthesia premiered at the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival to generally positive reviews. Dan Callahan of TheWrap g
- Risks and complications
Spinal anaesthesia, also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of neuraxial regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic or opioid into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long. It is a safe and effective form of anesthesia performed by anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists which can be used as an alternative to general anesthesia commonly in surgeries involving the lower extremities
Spinal anaesthesia is a commonly used technique, either on its own or in combination with sedation or general anaesthesia. It is most commonly used for surgeries below the umbilicus, however recently its uses have extended to some surgeries above the umbilicus as well as for postoperative analgesia. Procedures which use spinal anesthesia include: 1. Orthopaedic surgery on the pelvis, hip, femur, knee, tibia, and ankle, including arthroplasty and joint replacement 2. Vascular surgery on the legs
Prior to receiving spinal anesthesia, it is important to provide a thorough medical evaluation to ensure there are no absolute contraindications and to minimize risks and complications. Although contraindications are rare, below are some of them: 1. Patient refusal 2. Local infection or sepsis at the site of injection 3. Bleeding disorders, thrombocytopaenia, or systemic anticoagulation 4. Severe aortic stenosis 5. Increased intracranial pressure 6. Space occupying lesions of the brain 7. Anatom
Complications of spinal anesthesia can result from the physiologic effects on the nervous system and can also be related to placement technique. Most of the common side effects are minor and are self-resolving or easily treatable while major complications can result in more serious and permanent neurological damage and rarely death. These symptoms can occur immediately after administration of the anesthetic or arise up to 48 hours after surgery.
Regardless of the anaesthetic agent used, the desired effect is to block the transmission of afferent nerve signals from peripheral nociceptors. Sensory signals from the site are blocked, thereby eliminating pain. The degree of neuronal blockade depends on the amount and concentration of local anaesthetic used and the properties of the axon. Thin unmyelinated C-fibres associated with pain are blocked first, while thick, heavily myelinated A-alpha motor neurons are blocked moderately. Heavily mye
The first spinal analgesia was administered in 1885 by James Leonard Corning, a neurologist in New York. He was experimenting with cocaine on the spinal nerves of a dog when he accidentally pierced the dura mater. The first planned spinal anaesthesia for surgery in man was administered by August Bier on 16 August 1898, in Kiel, when he injected 3 ml of 0.5% cocaine solution into a 34-year-old labourer. After using it on 6 patients, he and his assistant each injected cocaine into the other's spin
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An anesthetic technician or anaesthetic technician (British English) is an allied healthcare worker who performs a patient care role predominantly assisting with the administration and monitoring of anesthesia and has an extensive knowledge of anesthesia techniques, instruments, supplies and technology.
An anaesthetic machine (British English) or anesthesia machine (American English) is a medical device used to generate and mix a fresh gas flow of medical gases and inhalational anaesthetic agents for the purpose of inducing and maintaining anaesthesia.
Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It induces a trance-like state while providing pain relief, sedation, and memory loss. Other uses include sedation in intensive care and treatment of pain and depression.