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  1. Bay of Pigs Invasion - Wikipedia › wiki › Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: invasión de bahía de Cochinos; sometimes called invasión de playa Girón or batalla de Girón, after the Playa Girón) was a failed landing operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban exiles who opposed Fidel Castro's Cuban Revolution.

    • Brigade 2506

      Brigade 2506 (Brigada Asalto 2506) was a CIA-sponsored group...

  2. Bay of Pigs Invasion - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ... › wiki › Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an attempt in 1961 (during the Cold War) to remove Fidel Castro from power in Cuba. The CIA trained Cuban exiles and these exiles launched an attack in a bay called the Bay of Pigs. The invasion was a failure and most of the attackers were captured or killed. There were several conflicts that led to this; including ...

    • Decisive Cuban government victory
    • Bay of Pigs, southern coast of Cuba
  3. Bay of Pigs - Wikipedia › wiki › Bay_of_Pigs

    The bay is historically important for the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961. The area is a site known for its diving, with an abundance of marine fauna, e.g. 30 species of sponges belonging to 19 families and 21 genera, [3] to be found in the bay.

    • 200 km² (77 sq mi)
    • Caribbean Sea
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  5. Talk:Bay of Pigs Invasion - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion

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  6. Bay of Pigs Invasion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › new_content › 63806233aac9bde91
    • Political Background
    • Prior Warnings of Invasion
    • Parties Involved
    • Existing Resistance in Cuba
    • Prelude to Invasion
    • Invasion
    • Aftermath
    • Later Analysis
    • Popular Culture References
    • Playa Girón Today

    On March 16, 1960, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower agreed to a recommendation from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to equip and drill Cuban exiles for action against the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.[4] Eisenhower stated it was the policy of the U.S. government to aid anti-Castro guerrilla forces.[5] The CIA was initially confident it was capable of overthrowing the Cuban government, having experience assisting in the overthrow of foreign governments such as that of Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. The plan (code-named Operation Pluto) was organized by Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr., CIA Deputy Director for Plans, under CIA Director Allen Dulles. The original CIA plan called for a ship-borne invasion at the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba, about 270 km (170mi) south-east of Havana, at the foothills of the Escambray Mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. Trinidad had good port facilities, and arguably was close to much existing counter-revolutiona...

    The Cuban security apparatus knew the invasion was coming, via their secret intelligence network, as well as loose talk by members of the brigade, some of which was heard in Miami and was repeated in US and foreign newspaper reports. Nevertheless, days before the invasion, multiple acts of sabotage were carried out, such as the bombing of the El Encanto department store in Havana, desultory explosions, and arson. The Cuban government also had been warned by senior KGB agents Osvaldo Sánchez Cabrera and "Aragon", who died violently before and after the invasion, respectively.[12] The general Cuban population was not well informed, except for CIA funded Radio Swan.[13] As of May 1960, almost all means of public communication were in the government’s hands.[14][15]

    [edit] Cuban government order of battle

    The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute. Cuban government sources credit Fidel Castro with directing strategy. Major Juan Almeida[16] was Head of the Central Army at Santa Clara.[17] Sergio del Valle Jiménez was Director of Headquarters Operations at Point One, Havana.[18] Antonio Enrique Lussón Batlle, a Raul Castro loyalist, is also placed there. Orlando Rodriguez Puerta, previous commander of Fidel Castro's personal guard, was charged with direction of Cuban...

    [edit] Hispano-Soviet advisors to Cuban government forces

    Soviet-trained advisors were brought to Cuba from Eastern Bloc countries. These advisors had held high staff positions in the Soviet Armies during World War II and having resided in the Soviet Union for long periods are thus known as "Hispano-Soviets"; the most senior of these were the Spanish Communist veterans of the Spanish Civil War Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (Cuban alias: Ángel Martínez Riosola, commonly referred to as Angelito), Enrique Lister and Cuba born (1892) Alberto Bayo.[24] The...

    After the success of the Cuban Revolution in January 1959, counter-revolutionary groups grew both in cities and in the countryside, particularly in the Escambray mountains, where a guerrilla war "War Against the Bandits" continued sporadically until about 1965. Prior to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the CIA supported and supplied various groups with arms and other resources, but they were not included in the invasion plans due to concerns about information security.[27] No quarter was given during the suppression of the resistance in the Escambray mountains, where former rebels from the War Against Batista took different sides.[28] On April 3, 1961, a bomb attack on militia barracks in Bayamo killed four militia and wounded eight more; on April 6, the Hershey Sugar factory in Matanzas was destroyed by sabotage.[29] On April 14, 1961, the guerrillas of Agapito Rivera fought Cuban government forces near Las Cruces, Montembo, Las Villas, where several government forces were killed and othe...

    [edit] Air attacks on airfields

    At about 06.00 Cuba local time on 15 April 1961, eight Douglas B-26B Invader bombers in three groups, simultaneously attacked three Cuban airfields, at San Antonio de Los Baños and at Ciudad Libertad (formerly named Campo Columbia), both near Havana, plus the Antonio Maceo International Airport at Santiago de Cuba. The B-26s had been prepared by the CIA on behalf of Brigade 2506, and had been painted with the markings of the FAR (Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria), the air force of the Cuban govern...

    [edit] Deception flight

    About 90 minutes after the eight B-26s had taken off from Puerto Cabezas to attack Cuban airfields, another B-26 departed on a deception flight that took it close to Cuba but headed north to Florida. Like the bomber groups, it carried false FAR markings and the same number 933 as painted on at least two of the others. Prior to departure, the cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by CIA personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the false appearance that the aircraft...

    [edit] Reactions

    At 10:30am on 15 April at the United Nations, the Cuban Foreign Minister Raúl Roa attempted to accuse the US of aggressive air attacks against Cuba, and that afternoon formally tabled a motion to the Political (First) Committee of the UN General Assembly. In response, Adlai Stevenson, the US ambassador to the UN, stated that US armed forces would not "under any conditions" intervene in Cuba, and that the US would do everything in its power to ensure that no US citizens would participate in ac...

    [edit] Invasion day

    At about 00.00 on April 17, 1961, the two CIA LCIs Blagar and Barbara J, each with a CIA "operations officer" and an Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) of five frogmen, entered the Bay of Pigs (Bahía de Cochinos) on the southern coast of Cuba. They headed a force of four transport ships (Houston, Río Escondido, Caribe, and Atlántico) carrying about 1,300 Cuban exile ground troops of Brigade 2506, plus tanks and other armour in the landing craft. At about 01.00, the Blagar, as the battlefield co...

    [edit] Invasion day plus one (D+1) 18 April

    By about 10.30 on 18 April, Cuban troops and militia, supported by tanks, took Playa Larga after Brigade forces had fled towards Girón in the early hours. During the day, Brigade forces retreated to San Blas along the two roads from Covadonga and Yaguaramas. By then, both Fidel Castro and José Ramón Fernández had re-located to that battlefront area.[27] At about 17.00 on 18 April, FAL B-26s attacked a Cuban column of 12 civilian buses leading trucks carrying tanks and other armour, moving sou...

    [edit] Invasion day plus two (D+2) 19 April

    The final air attack mission (code-named Mad Dog Flight) comprised five B-26s, four of which were manned by American CIA contract air crews and pilots from the Alabama Air Guard. The Cubans shot down two of these B-26s, killing four American airmen.[11] One of the C-46s delivered arms and equipment to the Girón airstrip occupied by Brigade 2506 ground forces. The C-46 also evacuated Matias Farias, the pilot of B-26 serial '935' (code-named Chico Two) that had been shot down and crash-landed a...

    [edit] Casualties

    Aircrews killed in action between April 15, 1961 and April 19, 1961 totalled six from FAR (Cuban air force), ten Cuban exiles and four US citizens.[10] By the time fighting ended on April 21, 1961, 68 Brigade 2506 ground forces personnel were killed in action and the rest were captured. Cuba's losses during the Bay of Pigs Invasion are more difficult to determine, but they are considered to be higher. Most sources estimate them to be in the thousands, mostly resulting from a number of failed...

    [edit] Prisoners

    On April 18, 1961, at least seven Cubans plus two CIA hired US citizens (Angus K. McNair and Howard F. Anderson) were executed in Pinar del Rio province.[29] Between April and October 1961, hundreds of executions took place in response to the invasion. They took place at various prisons, particularly at the dreaded Fortaleza de la Cabana and El Morro Castle, 18th-century Spanish fortresses built to protect Havana Harbor. The Cuban government authorities had converted their dungeons into priso...

    [edit] Political reaction

    The failed invasion severely embarrassed the Kennedy Administration and made Castro wary of future US intervention in Cuba. As a result of the failure, CIA Director Allen Dulles, CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Bissellwere all forced to resign. All three were held responsible for the planning of the operation at the CIA. Responsibility of the Kennedy administration and the US State Department for modifications of the plans was not apparent until later...

    [edit] CIA report

    The CIA wrote a detailed internal report that laid blame for the failure squarely on internal incompetence. Errors by the CIA and other American analysts contributed to the debacle: 1. The administration believed that the troops could retreat to the mountains to lead a guerrilla war if they lost in open battle. The mountains were too far to reach on foot, and the troops were deployed in swamp land, where they were easily surrounded. 2. They believed that the involvement of the US in the incid...

    [edit] Hindsight of invasion warnings

    An April 29, 2000 Washington Post article, "Soviets Knew Date of Cuba Attack", reported that the CIA had information indicating that the Soviet Union knew the invasion was going to take place and did not inform Kennedy. Radio Moscow broadcast an English-language newscast on April 13, 1961 predicting the invasion "in a plot hatched by the CIA" using paid "criminals" within a week. The invasion took place four days later.[51] According to the British Ambassador to the US, David Ormsby-Gore, Bri...

    [edit] Invasion legacy in Cuba

    The invasion is often criticized as making Castro even more popular, adding nationalistic sentiments to the support for his economic policies. Following the initial B-26 bombings, he declared the revolution "Marxist-Leninist". After the invasion, he pursued closer relations with the Soviet Union, partly for protection, which helped pave the way for the Cuban Missile Crisisa year and a half later. Castro was now increasingly wary of further US intervention and more susceptible to Soviet sugges...

    The song Washington Bullets by the band The Clashreferences the invasion in the third verse: Playa Girón is a well-known song by Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez, from the eponymous album that was a success in Latin-America. In his book "Downsize This!", Michael Moore has a chapter called "Those Keystone Cubans", discussing US-Cuban relations. He says that the Bay of Pigs Invasion "...resembles an old Keystone Copsmovie," due to the mismanagement of the operation. The plot of the novel "American Tabloid," by James Ellroy, surrounds the lives of various fictional characters responsible for plotting the invasion. In the book, President John F. Kennedyis assassinated by the planners as a direct result of his failure to provide U.S. military aid, particularly air support, to the exiles. The preparation and undertaking of the invasion is extensively covered in Littel's novel "The Company", with a major character joining the invasion forces on the beach. Though it is a fictionalis...

    Little remains of the original village, which in the 1960s was small and remote. It is still remote, with just a single road to the village and out again, but it has grown markedly since the invasion. Few people there today were residents at the time. The road from the north is marked by frequent memorials to the Cuban dead. There are billboards marking where invaders were rounded up and showing pictures of their being led away. Another at the entrance to the village quotes Castro's comment that the Bay of Pigs was the "first defeat of Yankee imperialism." A two-room museum, with aircraft and other military equipment outside, shows pictures, arms and maps of the attack and photos of Cuban soldiers who died. Billboards and other material also remember the US financed "mercenaries".

    • United States, Cuban exiles
    • Bay of Pigs, southern Cuba
    • April 17–19, 1961
    • Cuban Government victory
  7. Bay of Pigs Invasion — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion

    Aug 03, 2018 · The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored rebel group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who had traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover ...

    • 17-20 April 1961
    • Decisive Cuban victory
    • Bay of Pigs, southern coast of Cuba
  8. Bay of Pigs Invasion - Definition, Outcome & JFK - HISTORY › topics › cold-war

    Bay of Pigs: The Aftermath. The Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961 was a failed attack launched by the CIA during the Kennedy administration to push Cuban leader Fidel Castro (1926-2016) from ...

  9. Che Guevara - Wikipedia › wiki › Che_Guevara

    On 17 April 1961, 1,400 U.S.-trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba during the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Guevara did not play a key role in the fighting, as one day before the invasion a warship carrying Marines faked an invasion off the West Coast of Pinar del Río and drew forces commanded by Guevara to that region.

  10. Manuel Artime - Wikipedia › wiki › Manuel_Artime

    Manuel Francisco Artime Buesa, M.D. (29 January 1932 – 18 November 1977) was a Cuban-American who at one time was a member of the rebel army of Fidel Castro but later was the political leader of Brigade 2506 land forces in the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in April 1961.

  11. Grayston Lynch - Wikipedia › wiki › Grayston_Lynch

    Grayston L. Lynch (June 14, 1923 – August 10, 2008) was an American soldier and CIA officer. He was one of the two CIA officers who commanded the faction of the army that went to war in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

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