Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
- Current Usage
Bronze was the first alloy that was used by humans. The first nation that used Bronze was Egypt about 3500 years B.C. This gave the name for the Bronze Age. Bronze is stronger than copper or tin alone. Bronze lasts longer than copper. Pure copper can be oxidized by air and also by water. When copper is oxidized by air or water, it turns green (the color of "copper oxide"), and falls apart. When people learned how to make and work iron, the Bronze Age ended, and the Iron Age started. Iron can be made harder than bronze, but is susceptible to corrosion (see rust). Iron also wears away faster than bronze, when different pieces are moving against each other. Iron is very common, and easy to make. For this reason, iron costs less than bronze. This is the reason why iron is now used where bronze used to be used.
Bronze is still used to make many parts of machines. We use bronze when the part must last for a long time around water and air, or must not wear away. The main things that are made out of it are pump parts, bearings, bells, electrical components, gears, valves, and other things. Bronze parts are usually cast in a foundry. After they are cast, bronze parts can also be worked in a lathe or milling machine, or drilled. Bronze is not normally worked with a hammerlike iron.Piece of bronzePart of a bronze portrait of Marcus Aurelius
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Bronze is an alloy of copper with any of several other metals, often tin. Bronze may also refer to: Bronze (color), the tint of the metal. Bronze (turkey), a breed of domestic turkey. Bronze Age, an early period of historical development. Bronze medal, a medal given for a third-place finish in a competition.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze". It can be used for statues, singly or in groups, reliefs, and small statuettes and figurines, as well as bronze elements to be fitted to other objects such as furniture. It is often gilded to give gilt-bronze or ormolu. Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mould. Then, as the
There are many different bronze alloys, and the term is now tending to be regarded by museums as too imprecise, and replaced in descriptions by "copper alloy", especially for older objects. Typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins and a number of mechanical applications. Historical bronzes are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably ...
The great civilizations of the old world worked in bronze for art, from the time of the introduction of the alloy for tools and edged weapons. Dancing Girl from Mohenjodaro, belonging to the Harappan civilization and dating back to c. 2500 BCE, is perhaps the first known bronze statue. The Greeks were the first to scale the figures up to life size. Few examples exist in good condition; one is the seawater-preserved bronze Victorious Youth that required painstaking efforts to bring it to its pres
Making bronzes is highly skilled work, and a number of distinct casting processes may be employed, including lost-wax casting, sand casting and centrifugal casting. The term "bronze" is also applied to metal sculptures made by electrotyping, although these sculptures are typically pure copper and their fabrication does not involve metal casting.
Bronze is the color of the alloy bronze. The first recorded use of bronze as a color name in English was in 1753.
The Bronze is a 2015 American sports comedy-drama film directed by Bryan Buckley and written by Melissa Rauch and Winston Rauch. It was produced by Mark Duplass and Jay Duplass through their Duplass Brothers Productions banner. The film stars Rauch, Gary Cole, Thomas Middleditch, Sebastian Stan, Cecily Strong, Haley Lu Richardson and Dale Raoul. It had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2015. The film was theatrically released on March 18, 2016 by Sony Pictures Class
Former gymnastics Bronze Medalist Hope Ann Greggory has been living off her celebrity status in her hometown of Amherst, Ohio, though she is reduced to going through her postal worker father's mail deliveries for spending money. When her former coach Pavleck suddenly commits suicide, a letter arrives addressed to Hope stating that if she can guide Pavleck's best student, a young gymnastics star named Maggie Townsend to the Olympics in Toronto, she will receive a $500,000 inheritance. Unwilling t
On July 9, 2014, it was reported Melissa Rauch, Gary Cole, Thomas Middleditch, Sebastian Stan, Cecily Strong and Haley Lu Richardson had all been cast in the film, as well as that Stephanie Langhoff would produce the film under the Duplass Brothers Productions banner.
In July 2014, Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions acquired international distribution rights to the film. The film had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2015. Shortly after, Relativity Media acquired distribution rights to the film. The film was originally scheduled for release in July 2015, and October 2015. In September 2015, it was pulled from the schedule. The same month, Sony Pictures Classics acquired U.S distribution rights instead, and it was announced that
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 36%, based on 99 reviews, with an average rating of 5.13/10. The site's consensus reads, "Enthusiastically unpleasant and mostly unfunny, The Bronze fails to stick the landing – or much else along the way." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 44 out of 100, based on reviews from 31 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Peter Debruge of Variety wrote: "Though no one would accuse The Bronze of not being funny, it somehow manages not ...
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The overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to hot copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of extensive use of metals and of developing trade networks (See Tin sources and trade in ancient times). A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik (Serbia), although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age.The dating of the foil has been disputed.
Trade and industry played a major role in the development of the ancient Bronze Age civilizations. With artifacts of the Indus Valley Civilization being found in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, it is clear that these civilizations were not only in touch with each other but also trading with each other. Early long-distance trade was limited almost exclusively to luxury goods like spices, textiles and precious metals. Not only did this make cities with ample amounts of these products extremely rich but also led to an intermingling of cultures for the first time in history. Trade routes were not only over land but also over water. The first and most extensive trade routes were over rivers such as the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates which led to growth of cities on the banks of these rivers. The domestication of camels at a later time also helped encourage the use of trade routes over land, linking the Indus Valley with the Mediterranean. This further led to towns sprouting up in numb...Figueiredo, Elin (2010). "Smelting and Recycling Evidences from the Late Bronze Age habitat site of Baioes" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 37 (7): 1623–1634. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.01.02...Eogan, George (1983). The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin: University College, 331 p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4Hall, David and Coles, John (1994). Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003). "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad: sci...Childe, V.G. (1930). The bronze age. New York: The Macmillan Company.Fong, Wen, ed. (1980). The great bronze age of China: an exhibition from the People's Republic of China. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-226-1. Retrieved 13 September 2013.Kelleher, Bradford (1980). Treasures from the Bronze Age of China: An exhibition from the People's Republic of China, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-87099-23...Wagner, Donald B. (1993). Iron and Steel in Ancient China. Leiden, Netherlands; New York: E.J. Brill."Bronze Age" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4(11th ed.). 1911.
Bronze race (Spanish: raza de bronce) is a term used since the early 20th century by Hispanic American writers of the indigenista and americanista schools to refer to the mestizo population that arose in the Americas with the arrival of Latin European (particularly Spanish) settlers and their intermingling with the New World's Amerindian peoples.
The Bronze Star Medal ( BSM) is a United States Armed Forces decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone . When the medal is awarded by the Army, Air Force, or Space Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V ...