Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, cell division.
- chemo, CTX, CTx
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy.NameComponentsExample of uses, and other notes7+3, also known as DA or DAC in case of daunorubicin, or IA or IAC in case of idarubicin use7 days of Ara-C (cytarabine) plus 3 days of an anthracycline antibiotic, either daunorubicin (DA or DAC variant) or idarubicin (IA or IAC variant)Acute myelogenous leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemiadoxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazineACdoxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamideBACODbleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), dexamethasone
Chemotherapy, or 'chemo', is the use of chemical substances to treat diseases. The word "chemotherapy" is often used for a type of medicine used to treat cancer. The drugs are cytotoxic, which means they are toxic to the body's cells.
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CHOP is the acronym for a chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CHOP consists of: Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent which damages DNA by binding to it and causing the formation of cross-links Hydroxydaunorubicin, an intercalating agent which damages DNA by inserting itself between DNA bases Oncovin, which prevents cells from duplicating by binding to the protein tubulin Prednisone or Prednisolone, which are corticosteroids. Sometimes the chimeric anti-CD20 monoc
Normal cells are more able than cancer cells to repair damage from chemotherapy drugs. This regimen can also be combined with the monoclonal antibody rituximab if the lymphoma is of B cell origin; this combination is called R-CHOP. Typically, courses are administered at an interval of two or three weeks. A staging CT scan is generally performed after three cycles to assess whether the disease is responding to treatment. In patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, doxorubicin is often d
The combination is generally well tolerated. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may require antiemetics, and hemorrhagic cystitis is prevented with administration of mesna. Alopecia is common. Neutropenia generally develops in the second week. During this period, many clinicians recommend pegfilgrastim or prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin. If a fever develops in the neutropenic period, urgent medical assessment is required for neutropenic sepsis, as infections in patients with low neutroph
A pivotal study published in 1993 compared CHOP to several other chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CHOP emerged as the regimen with the least toxicity but similar efficacy. However, in Germany in 2012, bendamustine has displaced CHOP to become the first line treatment of choice for indolent lymphoma.
- Vinca Alkaloids
- National Cancer Chemotherapy Service Center
The era of cancer chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first use of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. The targeted therapy revolution has arrived, but many of the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply.
The beginnings of the modern era of cancer chemotherapy can be traced directly to the German introduction of chemical warfare during World War I. Among the chemical agents used, mustard gas was particularly devastating. Although banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925, the advent of World War II caused concerns over the possible re-introduction of chemical warfare. Such concerns led to the discovery of nitrogen mustard, a chemical warfare agent, as an effective treatment for cancer. Two pharmacolo
Shortly after World War II, a second approach to drug therapy of cancer began. Sidney Farber, a pathologist at Harvard Medical School, studied the effects of folic acid on leukemia patients. Folic acid, a vitamin crucial for DNA metabolism, had been discovered by Lucy Wills, when she was working in India, in 1937. It seemed to stimulate the proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells when administered to children with this cancer. In one of the first examples of rational drug design, Far
Joseph Burchenal, at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, with Farber's help, started his own methotrexate study and found the same effects. He then decided to try to develop anti-metabolites in the same way as Farber, by making small changes in a metabolite needed by a cell to divide. With the help of George Hitchings and Gertrude Elion, two pharmaceutical chemists who were working at the Burroughs Wellcome Co. in Tuckahoe, many purine analogues were tested, culminating in the di
The Eli Lilly natural products group found that alkaloids of the Madagascar periwinkle, originally discovered in a screen for anti-diabetic drugs, blocked proliferation of tumour cells. The antitumour effect of the vinca alkaloids was later shown to be due to their ability to inhibit microtubule polymerization alkaloys, and therefore cell division.
The NCI, headed by Dr. John R. Heller Jr., lobbied the United States Congress for financial support for second-generation chemotherapy research. In response, Congress created a National Cancer Chemotherapy Service Center at the NCI in 1955. This was the first federal programme to promote drug discovery for cancer – unlike now, most pharmaceutical companies were not yet interested in developing anticancer drugs. The NCCSC developed the methodologies and crucial tools for chemotherapeutic ...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia EPOCH is an intensive chemotherapy regimen intended for treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is often combined with rituximab. In this case it is called R-EPOCH or EPOCH-R.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers. These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, brain tumors and neuroblastoma. It is given by injection into a vein.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer. It is given by injection into a vein.
- Why It's Done
- How You Prepare
- What You Can Expect
- Clinical Trials
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.Many different chemotherapy drugs are available. Chemotherapy drugs can be used alone or in combination to treat a wide variety of cancers.Though chemotherapy is an effective way to treat many types of cancer, chemotherapy treatment also carries a risk of side ef...
Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells in people with cancer.There are a variety of settings in which chemotherapy may be used in people with cancer: 1. To cure the cancer without other treatments. Chemotherapy can be used as the primary or sole treatment for cancer. 2. After other treatments, to kill hidden cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be used after other treatments, such as surgery, to kill any cancer cells that might remain in the body. Doctors call this adjuvant therapy. 3. To prepar...
Side effects of chemotherapy drugs can be significant. Each drug has different side effects, and not every drug causes every side effect. Ask your doctor about the side effects of the particular drugs you'll receive.
How you prepare for chemotherapy depends on which drugs you'll receive and how they'll be administered. Your doctor will give you specific instructions to prepare for your chemotherapy treatments. You may need to: 1. Have a device surgically inserted before intravenous chemotherapy. If you'll be receiving your chemotherapy intravenously — into a vein — your doctor may recommend a device, such as a catheter, port or pump. The catheter or other device is surgically implanted into a large vein,...
Your doctor chooses which chemotherapy drugs you'll receive based on several factors, including: 1. Type of cancer 2. Stage of cancer 3. Overall health 4. Previous cancer treatments 5. Your goals and preferencesDiscuss your treatment options with your doctor. Together you can decide what's right for you.
You'll meet with your cancer doctor (oncologist) regularly during chemotherapy treatment. Your oncologist will ask about any side effects you're experiencing, since many can be controlled.Depending on your situation, you may also undergo scans and other tests to monitor your cancer during chemotherapy treatment. These tests can give your doctor an idea of how your cancer is responding to treatment, and your treatment may be adjusted accordingly.
Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.
Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of chemical drug therapy meant to destroy rapidly growing cells in the body. It’s usually used to treat cancer, as cancer cells grow and divide faster than other...