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  1. Congenital rubella syndrome - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_rubella_syndrome

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.If infection occurs 0–28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% risk of being affected.

  2. Rubella - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubella,_congenital_syndrome

    Rubella is a common infection in many areas of the world. Each year about 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome occur. Rates of disease have decreased in many areas as a result of vaccination. There are ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally.

  3. Talk:Congenital rubella syndrome - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Congenital_rubella...

    Congenital rubella syndrome is within the scope of WikiProject Autism, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of all aspects of autism and Autistic culture on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page , where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.

  4. Rubella virus - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matonaviridae

    Rubella virus (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the main cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy. Rubella virus Transmission electron micrograph of Rubella virus virions

  5. Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS): Symptoms, Diagnosis and ...

    www.symptoma.com/en/info/congenital-rubella-syndrome

    Congenital rubella syndrome refers to the entirety of symptoms shown by a child whose mother contracted rubella during early pregnancy. If such an infection does not lead to miscarriage or still birth, the neonate may show severe congenital malformations.… Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.

  6. Congenital rubella syndrome | definition of congenital ...

    medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/...

    congenital rubella syndrome A malformation complex in a fetus infected in utero with rubella; the defects reflect the embryologic stage at the time of infection, with developmental arrest affecting all 3 embryonal layers, inhibiting mitosis, causing delayed and defective organogenesis; maternal infection in the 1 st 8 wks of pregnancy causes embryopathy in 50-70% of fetuses; the susceptible ...

  7. Congenital heart defect - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_heart_defect

    A number of genetic conditions are associated with heart defects, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Marfan syndrome. Congenital heart defects are divided into two main groups: cyanotic heart defects and non-cyanotic heart defects , depending on whether the child has the potential to turn bluish in color. [3]

  8. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_cytomegalovirus...

    Presentation. For infants who are infected by their mothers before birth, two potential adverse scenarios exist: Generalized infection may occur in the infant, and can cause complications such as low birth weight, microcephaly, seizures, petechial rash similar to the "blueberry muffin" rash of congenital rubella syndrome, and moderate hepatosplenomegaly (with jaundice).

  9. Surveillance Manual | Congenital Rubella Syndrome | VPDs ...

    www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt15-crs...
    • Disease Description
    • Background
    • Maintenance of Elimination
    • Vaccination
    • Case Definition
    • Laboratory Testing
    • Reporting and Case Notification
    • Case Investigation
    • Conducting Active Surveillance
    • Prevent Transmission from Infants with CRS
    • References

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness in infants that results from maternal infection with rubella virus during pregnancy. When rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences–such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and a constellation of severe birth defects in infants–can result. The risk of congenital infection and defects is highest during the first 12 weeks of gestation and decreases after the 12th week of gestation; defects are rare after infection in the 20th...

    The link between congenital cataracts and maternal rubella infection was first made in 1941 by an Australian ophthalmologist, Norman Gregg, who had noticed an unusual number of infants with cataracts following a rubella epidemic in 1940. In the absence of vaccination, rubella is an endemic disease with epidemics occurring every 6–9 years. If rubella infections occurred among nonimmune pregnant women, CRS cases occured. During the 1962–1965 global rubella pandemic, an estimated 12.5 million ru...

    The United States has established and achieved the goal of eliminating CRS and the indigenous transmission of rubella. As noted above, elimination of endemic rubella was documented and verified in the United States in 2004. However, because of international travel and countries without routine rubella vaccination, imported cases of rubella and CRS cases still occur. To maintain elimination, the United States should continue to maintain high vaccination rates among children; ensure that women...

    See Chapter 14, “Rubella,” for information on vaccination with rubella-containing vaccines.Top of Page

    The following case definition for CRS was approved by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) and published in 2009.Suspected: An infant who does not meet the criteria for a probable or confirmed case but who has 1 or more of the following findings: 1. cataracts, 2. congenital glaucoma, 3. congenital heart disease (most commonly patent ductus arteriosus or peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis), 4. hearing impairment, 5. pigmentary retinopathy, 6. purpura, 7. hepatosplenome...

    Diagnostic tests used to confirm CRS include serologic assays and detection of rubella virus.For additional information on laboratory testing for rubella virus, see Chapter 14, “Rubella.” For additional information on use of laboratory testing in surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases, see Chapter 22, “Laboratory Support for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.”

    Each state and territory has regulations or laws governing the reporting of diseases and conditions of public health importance. These regulations and laws list the diseases to be reported and describe those persons or groups responsible for reporting, such as healthcare providers, hospitals, laboratories, schools, daycare and childcare facilities, and other institutions. Persons reporting should contact the state health department for state-specific reporting requirements. The Congenital Rub...

    Cases of US-acquired CRS are sentinel events indicating the presence of rubella infections in a community that may have been previously unrecognized. The diagnosis of a single case of US-acquired CRS in a community should result in intensified rubella and CRS surveillance and an investigation to determine where the mother was exposed to rubella. If the mother was exposed in a different state, state health officials should contact the other state to alert public health officials to possible ru...

    Surveillance for CRS should be implemented when confirmed or probable rubella cases are documented in a setting where pregnant women might have been exposed. Women who contract rubella while pregnant should be monitored for birth outcome, and appropriate testing should be performed on the infant after birth. Healthcare providers should be advised to evaluate infants born with conditions consistent with CRS and to collect specimens for virus detection and to perform a rubella-specific IgM anti...

    Cases of US-acquired rubella have occurred among susceptible persons providing care for infants with CRS. Because infants can shed the virus for prolonged periods (up to 1 year of age or longer), infants with CRS should be considered infectious until they are at least 1 year old or until 2 clinical specimens obtained 1 month apart are negative for rubella virus by RT-PCR, either real-time or conventional; culture is also acceptable. The majority of infants will shed virus for 3 months after b...

    1. Peckham CS. Clinical and laboratory study of children exposed in utero to maternal rubella. Arch Dis Child 1972;47(254):571–77. doi: 10.1136/adc.47.254.571 2. Webster WS. Teratogen update: congenital rubella. Teratology 1998;58(1):13–23. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926(199807)58:1<13::AID-TERA5>3.0.CO;2-2 3. Miller E, Cradock-Watson JE, Pollock TM. Consequences of confirmed maternal rubella at successive stages of pregnancy. Lancet 1982;2(8302):781–4. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(82)92677-0 4. Gr...

  10. WHO | Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)

    www.who.int/.../surveillance_type/passive/rubella/en

    Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Description: Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an important cause of severe birth defects. When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus.

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