Deer flies (also known in some parts of the mid-Atlantic United States as sheep flies) are bloodsucking insects considered pests to humans and cattle. They are large flies with large brightly-coloured compound eyes, and large clear wings with dark bands. They are larger than the common housefly and smaller than the horse-fly.
Red deer, moose, roe deer, fallow deer, and Siberian musk deer are this fly's native host. In the United States, it has acquired hosts such as elk , white-tailed deer , and reindeer.   There are stray records of bites on humans, dogs  and badger , and it will occasionally commit to the wrong host.
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In the past, the deer bot fly, Cephenemyia, was claimed to be one of the fastest insects on the basis of an estimate made visually by Charles Townsend in 1927. This claim, of speeds of 600 to 800 miles per hour, was regularly repeated until it was shown to be physically impossible as well as incorrect by Irving Langmuir.
- Signs and symptoms
Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Symptoms may include fever, skin ulcers, and enlarged lymph nodes. Occasionally, a form that results in pneumonia or a throat infection may occur. The bacterium is typically spread by ticks, deer flies, or contact with infected animals. It may also be spread by drinking contaminated water or breathing in contaminated dust. It does not spread directly between people. Diagnosis is by blo
Depending on the site of infection, tularemia has six characteristic clinical variants: ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, pneumonic, oculoglandular, and typhoidal. The incubation period for tularemia is one to 14 days; most human infections become apparent after three to five days. In most susceptible mammals, the clinical signs include fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, signs of sepsis, and possibly death. Nonhuman mammals rarely develop the skin lesions seen in people. Subclinical inf
Tularemia is caused by the bacteria Francisella tularensis which is typically spread by ticks, deer flies, and contact with infected animals.
In lymph node biopsies, the typical histopathologic pattern is characterized by geographic areas of necrosis with neutrophils and necrotizing granulomas. The pattern is non specific and similar to other infectious lymphadenopathies. The laboratorial isolation of F. tularensis req
There are no safe, available, approved vaccines against tularemia. However, vaccination research and development continues, with live attenuated vaccines being the most thoroughly researched and most likely candidate for approval. Sub-unit vaccine candidates, such as killed-whole cell vaccines, are also under investigation, however research has not reached a state of public use. Optimal preventative practices include limiting direct exposure when handling potentially infected animals by wearing
If infection occurs or is suspected, treatment is generally with the antibiotics streptomycin or gentamicin. Doxycycline was previously used. Gentamicin may be easier to obtain than streptomycin. There is also tentative evidence to support the use of quinolone antibiotics.
Binomial name. Diachlorus ferrugatus. ( Fabricius, 1805) Synonyms. Chrysops ferrugatus Fabricius, 1805. Diachlorus ferrugatus, commonly known as the yellow fly in the United States or doctor fly in Belize, is a species of highly aggressive biting horse-fly of the family Tabanidae native to North and Central America to Costa Rica.
Oct 08, 2018 · Deer flies are mostly found in the temperature, terrestrial, and wetland areas of the world. How does a Deer fly Reproduce? Reproduction is a part about the life of a deer fly that is still under a lot of scrutiny and discussion. Male deer flies look for their mates by either taking a hovering or non-hovering flight.
The deer flies get stuck in the sticky goo and die. The bright blue color is such a powerful attractant that people nearby are not even bitten. Since there is only a finite number of deer flies in one location, you can temporarily reduce the deer fly population to the point they are no longer a problem.
Distinctively, deer flies have large, brightly colored eyes and antennae larger than their heads. Like the horse fly, the Florida deer fly feeds on the blood of humans and other animals. Warm weather brings them out in droves, and they rely on color, movement, or good old CO2 output to find their victims.
- Life History
- Biting Habits
- Selected References
In Florida, the name yellow fly is commonly used to describe a group of about a dozen different yellow-bodied biting flies in the Tabanidae family. However, Florida tabanid experts recognize only one species, Diachlorus ferrugatus(Fabricius), as the true yellow fly. In Belize this species is known as the doctor fly. The yellow fly is a fierce biter. Like mosquitoes, it is the female fly that is responsible for inflicting a bite. The males are mainly pollen and nectar feeders. Tabanids are most likely encountered in hot summer and early fall weather. They are active during daylight hours.
Chrysops ferrugatus Fabricius, 1805: 111. Type locality: Carolina, U.S.A. Type female: lost. Tabanus americanus Palisot de Beauvois, 1819: 222 (preocc. Forster, 1771). Diabasis ataenia Macquart, 1838: 156. Type locality: Carolina, U.S.A. Chrysops convergens Walker, 1848: 198. Type locality: Honduras. Chrysops approximans Walker, 1848: 198. Type locality: Florida. Tabanus rondaniiBellardi, 1859: 68. Type locality: Mexico.
Yellow flies are found in the southeastern U.S. from New Jersey to Texas, as well as in the Bahamas, and from Mexico to Costa Rica. The genus Diachlorus contains 23 neotropical species, as keyed by Fairchild (1972). But Diachlorus ferrugatus(Fabricius) is the only species that has reached the U.S., probably coming by way of Mexico. Its occurrence in the Bahamas seems to be a recent extension from Florida, as it has not been found elsewhere in the West Indies.
Adults: The adult is a predominantly yellow fly about 1 cm (3/8 inch) long, similar in appearance to a deer fly (Chrysops). The fore legs are predominantly black, the other pairs yellow. The wings are clear, with black stigma, yellow costal cell, and a prominent brown patch at the apex. The eyes of the live fly are brilliant blue-green, with two purple bands. The female can be distinguished from deer flies by the very narrow frons (space between the eyes in front), and (in both sexes) the brown wing patch at the apex, rather than across the middle, of the wing. The abdomen is yellow, black- haired on the sides, but with a broad yellow-haired stripe down the middle. Eggs:The eggs are very small (about 1/16" long) and creamy white when first deposited, but turn dark after several hours. These egg masses sometimes resemble tar specks. Larvae:The larvae are aquatic or semiaquatic. Larvae are slender, whitish grubs nearly covered by very fine, yellowish pubescence and bearing only three...
Larvae feed primarily on decaying organic matter. The larvae may molt more than 10 times before pupating and emerging as adults. Mature larvae have been collected and reared to the adult stage on a few occasions. They have been found only in deeply shaded areas in root mats of cypress, shingle oak, and other woody plants, always beneath the water surface (Jones and Anthony 1964). Although strong fliers, adults are often found around the larval habitat, but they may move considerable distances to find a blood meal. Both sexes feed on plant nectar and pollen. Males are rarely collected; most of those known were taken in light traps. The female feeds on blood to develop eggs. Mating takes place soon after emergence. Once mated, the female deposits an egg mass on plants, rocks, sticks or other objects usually over water. After five to 12 days, the eggs hatch and the young larvae drop into the water or mud where they feed on organic debris or prey on other small aquatic organisms. Depend...
The female yellow fly is one of the most serious biting fly pests wherever it occurs (males do not bite). It attacks man vigorously, and the bites are painful, often causing large and itchy swellings. Although it attacks throughout the day, it is most active during the late afternoon and on cloudy days. It is especially common near large bodies of water, but tends to remain in or near forests. It is one of the few tabanids that attacks indoors. All exposed parts of the victim's body may be attacked, and since the flight is rather quiet, a person is not aware of the flies until the sharp pain of the bite is felt. Domestic animals, including dogs, are attacked readily, although the fly's preference for shade makes it less of a pest to cattle and horses in open pastures. Flies are on the wing in Florida from March to November, although the peak season is April through June. Williams (1971) studied biting habits of Diachlorus ferrugatusin British Honduras, but nothing comparable has bee...
No effective methods for larval control are known. Mosquito repellents are moderately effective against the adults except when the flies are very abundant or very hungry. Gloves and headnets offer the only sure means of protection. Deet (diethyl toluamide) is the most effective repellent. To prevent possible development of dangerous hypersensitivity and systemic reactions, persons sensitive to the bites should avoid exposure to the flies. Currently there are no adequate means for managing populations. Traps are sometimes effective in control of small areas such as yards, camping sites, and swimming pools. Trapping of nuisance flieshas reduced their numbers on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Traps have been effective when used around cattle that are confined to manageable areas (Squitier 2011). Florida Insect Management Guide for biting fliesBanks N. 1904. The "yellow fly" of the dismal swamp. Entomological News 15: 290-291.Bequaert J. 1924. Report of an entomological trip to the Truxillo division, Honduras, to investigate the sand-fly problem. 13th Annual Report Medical Department United Fruit Company pp. 193-206.Bequaert J. 1931. Tabanidae of the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico, with descriptions of new species. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 39: 533-553.Blickle RL. 1958. Eye color of male Diachlorus ferrugatus(Fab.). Entomological News 69: 230.
- related to: Deer fly wikipedia
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